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424B5
APOLLO COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE FINANCE, INC. filed this Form 424B5 on 11/08/2017
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424B5
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-203971

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each Class of Securities to be Registered

   Amount to be
Registered
    Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Note(1)
    Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price(1)
    Amount of
Registration
Fee
 

4.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2022

   $ 115,000,000 (1)(2)      100.5   $ 115,575,000     $ 14,389.09 (3) 

Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

     (4)      (4)      (4)      (5) 

 

(1) Equals the aggregate principal amount of 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 to be registered hereunder. These amounts are estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

 

(2) Includes $15,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 that may be offered and sold pursuant to the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022.

 

(3) Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act. The fee payable in connection with the offering of 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 pursuant to this prospectus supplement has been paid in accordance with Rule 456(b) under the Securities Act.

 

(4) An indeterminate number of shares of Common Stock may be issued from time to time upon conversion of the 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the registrant is also registering an indeterminate number of shares of Common Stock as may become issuable upon conversion by reason of adjustments in the conversion price.

 

(5) Pursuant to Rule 457(i) under the Securities Act, no separate registration fee is required for the shares of Common Stock underlying the 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 because no additional consideration is to be received in connection with the exercise of the conversion privilege.


Table of Contents

Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus dated May 7, 2015)

 

LOGO

$100,000,000

4.75% CONVERTIBLE SENIOR NOTES DUE 2022

Interest payable February 15 and August 15

Issue Price: 100.5% plus accrued interest from, and including, August 21, 2017

 

 

We are offering $100,000,000 principal amount of our 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022, or the notes. The notes will bear interest at a rate of 4.75% per year, payable semi-annually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on February 15, 2018. However, the final interest payment date will occur on August 23, 2022, and no interest payment date will occur on August 15, 2022. The notes will mature on August 23, 2022, unless earlier, redeemed, repurchased or converted.

The notes we are offering will be issued as additional notes under the indenture pursuant to which we previously issued $230,000,000 aggregate principal amount of our 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 in August 2017, which we refer to as the initial notes. The notes will have substantially identical terms as the initial notes, will be treated as a single series of securities with the initial notes under the indenture and will have the same CUSIP number as the initial notes. Holders of the notes and the initial notes will vote as one class under the indenture.

Holders may convert all or any portion of their notes, in integral multiples of $1,000 principal amount, at their option, at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, unless the notes have been previously redeemed or repurchased by us. The initial conversion rate for the notes is 50.2260 shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, or the common stock, per $1,000 principal amount of notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $19.91 per share of common stock), subject to adjustment as described in this prospectus supplement. In addition, following certain corporate events referred to herein as “make-whole fundamental changes” that occur prior to the maturity date, we will increase the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its notes in connection with such a corporate event in certain circumstances as described under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change.”

Upon conversion, we will pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election. If we satisfy our conversion obligation solely in cash or through payment and delivery, as the case may be, of a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, the amount of cash and shares of common stock, if any, due upon conversion will be based on a daily conversion value calculated for each trading day in a 25 trading day observation period. See “Description of Notes— Conversion Rights—Settlement upon Conversion.”

Following certain corporate events referred to herein as “fundamental changes,” subject to certain conditions, holders may require us to repurchase for cash all or part of their notes in principal amounts of $1,000 or an integral multiple thereof. The fundamental change repurchase price generally will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date.

We may not redeem the notes prior to their maturity, except to the extent necessary to preserve our status as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as further described in this prospectus supplement. No sinking fund will be provided for the notes.

The notes will be our senior unsecured obligations and will rank senior in right of payment to any of our existing and future indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the notes; equal in right of payment to any of our existing and future liabilities that are not so subordinated; effectively junior in right of payment to any of our secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness; and structurally junior to all existing and future indebtedness, other liabilities (including trade payables) and (to the extent not held by us) preferred stock, if any, of our subsidiaries.

The initial notes are not listed or quoted, and we do not intend to apply to have the notes listed or quoted on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. Our common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ARI.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on The New York Stock Exchange on November 3, 2017 was $18.35 per share.

 

 

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement and on page 5 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 for a discussion of important factors that you should consider before investing in the notes.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

     Per Note     Total  

Public offering price(1)

     100.5   $ 100,500,000  

Underwriting discount

     2.5   $ 2,500,000  

Proceeds to us, before expenses(1)

     98   $ 98,000,000  

 

(1) The purchase price of the notes in this offering will include accrued interest from, and including, August 21, 2017. The table above does not reflect such accrued interest.

Interest on the notes will accrue from, and including, August 21, 2017.

The underwriters will have the option to purchase, within a period of 13 days beginning on, and including, the date the notes are first issued, up to an additional $15,000,000 principal amount of notes from us at the public offering price less the underwriting discount.

The underwriters expect to deliver the notes in book-entry form only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company on or about November 9, 2017.

 

 

Joint Book Running Managers

 

Morgan Stanley   BofA Merrill Lynch       Citigroup   J.P. Morgan

 

 

Co-Managers

 

Deutsche Bank Securities   JMP Securities   Keefe, Bruyette & Woods A Stifel Company

November 6, 2017


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-1  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-2  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     S-4  

RISK FACTORS

     S-11  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-19  

RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

     S-20  

CAPITALIZATION

     S-21  

DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

     S-23  

UNDERWRITING

     S-54  

ADDITIONAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     S-59  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-72  

EXPERTS

     S-72  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-73  

Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SUMMARY INFORMATION

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     14  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     25  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     30  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     35  

BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

     59  

LEGAL MATTERS

     61  

EXPERTS

     61  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     61  

 

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Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into the prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus, the information in this prospectus supplement shall control. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.

You should read this document together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information and Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should assume that the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information we have previously filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this document, is accurate only as of its date or the dates which are specified in those documents.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. For these statements, we claim the protections of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in such Sections. Forward-looking statements are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements. Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, may be forward-looking:

 

    the use of proceeds of this offering;

 

    market trends in our industry;

 

    interest rates;

 

    real estate values;

 

    the debt securities markets or the general economy or the demand for commercial real estate loans;

 

    our business and investment strategy;

 

    our operating results;

 

    actions and initiatives of the U.S. government and governments outside of the United States and changes to government policies and the execution and impact of these actions, initiatives and policies;

 

    the state of the economy generally or in specific geographic regions;

 

    economic trends and economic recoveries;

 

    our ability to obtain and maintain financing arrangements, including repurchase agreement financing and securitizations;

 

    the availability of debt financing from traditional lenders;

 

    the volume of short-term loan extensions;

 

    the demand for new capital to replace maturing loans;

 

    expected leverage;

 

    general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;

 

    changes in the value of our assets;

 

    the scope of our target assets;

 

    interest rate mismatches between our target assets and any borrowings used to fund such assets;

 

    changes in interest rates and the market value of our target assets;

 

    changes in prepayment rates on our target assets;

 

    effects of hedging instruments on our target assets;

 

    rates of default or decreased recovery rates on our target assets;

 

    the degree to which hedging strategies may or may not protect us from interest rate volatility;

 

    impact of and changes in governmental regulations, tax law and rates, accounting, legal or regulatory issues or guidance and similar matters;

 

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    our continued maintenance of our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

    our continued exclusion from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the 1940 Act;

 

    the availability of opportunities to acquire commercial mortgage-related, real estate-related and other securities;

 

    the availability of qualified personnel;

 

    estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future; and

 

    our present and potential future competition.

The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements are not predictions of future events. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations can change as a result of many events or factors, not all of which are known to us. Some of these factors are described in “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement and page 3 of the accompanying prospectus, and set forth under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” on page 5 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 and our other filings under the Exchange Act (which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement). These and other risks, uncertainties and factors, including those described in the annual, quarterly and current reports that we file with the SEC, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those included in any forward-looking statements we make. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and we do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights some of the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in the notes. You should read carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to the “company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “our company” are to Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries; references in this prospectus supplement to “Apollo” refer to Apollo Global Management, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, together with its subsidiaries; and references in this prospectus supplement to “our Manager” refer to ACREFI Management, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and an indirect subsidiary of Apollo Global Management, LLC. Unless indicated otherwise, the information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional notes.

Our Company

General

We are a Maryland corporation that has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We primarily originate, acquire, invest in and manage performing commercial first mortgage loans, subordinate financings, commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, and other commercial real estate-related debt investments. We refer to the assets we target for acquisition as our target assets.

We are externally managed and advised by our Manager, an indirect subsidiary of Apollo, a leading global alternative investment manager with a contrarian and value oriented investment approach in private equity, credit and real estate and with assets under management of approximately $242 billion as of September 30, 2017. Our Manager is led by an experienced team of senior real estate professionals who have significant expertise in underwriting and structuring commercial real estate financing transactions. We benefit from Apollo’s global infrastructure and operating platform, through which we are able to source, evaluate and manage potential investments in our target assets.

Our principal business objective is to invest in our target assets in order to provide attractive risk adjusted returns to our stockholders over the long term, primarily through dividends and secondarily through capital appreciation.

We were organized in 2009 and have elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2009. We are generally not subject to U.S. federal income taxes on our taxable income to the extent that we annually distribute our net taxable income to stockholders and satisfy certain other requirements that allow us to maintain our intended qualification as a REIT. We also intend to operate our business in a manner that will permit us to continue to remain excluded from registration as an investment company under the 1940 Act.

Recent Developments

The following events occurred subsequent to September 30, 2017:

New Investments—We committed capital to $590.5 million of loans, $463.2 million of which has been funded.

Funding of Previously Closed Loans—We funded approximately $2.5 million for previously closed loans.

 



 

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Loan Repayments—We received approximately $271.2 million from loan repayments, including $140.5 million from first mortgage loans and $130.7 million from subordinate loans.

Sale of CMBS—We received approximately $48.4 million in proceeds from sales and principal pay downs from four CMBS at $2.5 million in excess of book value at September 30, 2017 and recognized a $7.4 million realized loss on the sale.

Credit Facility—We amended our master repurchase agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., or the JPMorgan Facility, which we primarily use to finance first mortgage loans. The amendment increased our borrowing capacity to $1.4 billion from $1.1 billion (both amounts include a pre-existing $143.0 million asset specific financing).

Our Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 9 West 57th Street, 43rd Floor, New York, New York 10019. Our telephone number is (212) 515-3200. Our website is www.apolloreit.com. The information on our website does not form a part of and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 



 

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THE OFFERING

The following is a brief summary of the terms of this offering and the notes. We provide the following summary solely for your convenience. This summary is not a complete description of this offering or the notes. You should read the full text and more specific details contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. For a more detailed description of the notes, see “Description of Notes” in this prospectus supplement and “Description of Debt Securities” in the accompanying prospectus. With respect to the terms of the notes on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, in this section and in the section entitled “Description of Notes,” the terms “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries.

 

Issuer

Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc., a Maryland corporation.

 

Securities

$100,000,000 principal amount of 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 (plus up to an additional $15,000,000 principal amount pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional notes), which we refer to as the notes.

 

  The notes we are offering will be issued as additional notes under the indenture pursuant to which we previously issued $230.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 in August 2017, which we refer to as the initial notes. The notes will have substantially identical terms as the initial notes, will be treated as a single series of securities with the initial notes under the indenture and will have the same CUSIP number as the initial notes. Holders of the notes and the initial notes will vote as one class under the indenture.

 

Issue price

100.5% of the principal amount, plus accrued interest from, and including, August 21, 2017.

 

Maturity date

August 23, 2022, unless earlier redeemed, repurchased or converted.

 

Interest rate

4.75% per year. Interest will accrue from, and including, August 21, 2017 and will be payable semi-annually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on February 15, 2018. However, the final interest payment date will occur on August 23, 2022, and no interest payment date will occur on August 15, 2022. We will pay additional interest, if any, at our election as the sole remedy relating to the failure to comply with our reporting obligations as described under “Description of Notes—Events of Default.”

 

Ranking

The notes will be our senior unsecured obligations and will rank:

 

    senior in right of payment to any of our existing and future indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the notes;

 

    equal in right of payment to any of our existing and future unsecured indebtedness that is not so subordinated;

 



 

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    effectively junior in right of payment to any of our secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness; and

 

    structurally junior to all existing and future indebtedness, other liabilities (including trade payables) and (to the extent not held by us) preferred stock, if any, of our subsidiaries.

 

  As of September 30, 2017, excluding our subsidiaries, we had no secured indebtedness and $484.75 million of senior unsecured indebtedness, and our subsidiaries had $1.4 billion of indebtedness and other liabilities. We will incur an additional $100.0 million (or $115.0 million, if the underwriters fully exercise their option to purchase additional notes) of indebtedness in connection with this offering. See “Capitalization.”

 

  The indenture governing the notes does not limit the amount of debt that we or our subsidiaries may incur.

 

Conversion rights

Holders may convert all or any portion of their notes, in multiples of $1,000 principal amount, at their option, at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, unless the notes have been previously purchased by us.

 

  The initial conversion rate for the notes is 50.2260 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $19.91 per share of our common stock), subject to adjustment as described in this prospectus supplement.

 

  Upon conversion, we will pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election. If we satisfy our conversion obligation solely in cash or through payment and delivery, as the case may be, of a combination of cash and shares of our common stock (excluding cash paid in lieu of any fractional share), the amount of cash and shares of our common stock, if any, due upon conversion will be based on a daily conversion value (as described herein) calculated for each trading day in a 25 trading day observation period (as described herein). See “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Settlement Upon Conversion.”

 

  In addition, following a “make-whole fundamental change” (as defined in this prospectus supplement under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make- whole Fundamental Change”) that occurs prior to the maturity date, we will increase the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its notes in connection with such a corporate event in certain circumstances. See “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change.”

 



 

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  You will not receive any additional cash payment or additional shares representing accrued and unpaid interest, if any, upon conversion of a note, except in limited circumstances. Instead, interest will be deemed to be paid by the cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock paid or delivered, as the case may be, to you upon conversion of a note.

 

  Any conversion of notes into shares of our common stock will be subject to certain ownership limitations more fully described in “Description of Notes—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable Upon Conversion.”

 

Redemption of Notes to Preserve REIT Status

We may not redeem the notes prior to their maturity, except to the extent, and only to the extent, necessary to preserve our status as a REIT. If we determine that redeeming the notes is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT, then we may redeem all or part of the notes at a cash redemption price equal to the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date.

 

No sinking fund

No “sinking fund” is provided for the notes, which means that we are not required to redeem or retire the notes periodically.

 

Fundamental change

Following a “fundamental change” (as defined in this prospectus supplement under “Description of Notes—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes”), subject to certain conditions, holders may require us to repurchase for cash all or part of their notes in principal amounts of $1,000 or an integral multiple thereof. The fundamental change repurchase price will generally be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. See “Description of Notes— Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes.”

 

Book-entry form

The notes will be issued in book-entry form and will be represented by one or more permanent global certificates deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. Beneficial interests in any of the notes will be shown on, and transfers will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, and any such interest may not be exchanged for certificated securities, except in limited circumstances.

 

No listing

The initial notes are not listed or quoted, and we do not intend to apply to have the notes listed or quoted, on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. Our common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ARI.”

 



 

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Trustee, paying agent and conversion agent

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association.

 

U.S. federal income tax considerations

For certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of the notes and the shares of our common stock, if any, into which the notes are convertible, see “Additional U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in this prospectus supplement and “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use all or a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to acquire or originate our target assets, which include commercial first mortgage loans, subordinate financings, CMBS and other commercial real estate-related debt investments, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Pending such uses, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our repurchase agreements (excluding repurchase agreements secured by our CMBS portfolio). An affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, an underwriter in this offering, is the lender under the JPMorgan Facility. As such, an affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may receive a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, to the extent the JPMorgan Facility is repaid. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 and on page 5 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 for a discussion of factors that should be considered before investing in the notes.

 

Restrictions on ownership and transfer of common stock

To assist us in complying with the limitations on the concentration of ownership of a REIT imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Internal Revenue Code, among other purposes, our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. Our charter generally prohibits, among other prohibitions, any stockholder from beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes or series of our capital stock. Our board of directors has established exemptions from the common stock ownership limit that permit Apollo and certain of its affiliates collectively to hold up to 25% of our common stock and certain institutional investors, each together with certain of their specified affiliates, each collectively to hold up to 15% of our common stock. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Description of Notes—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable Upon Conversion” in this prospectus supplement

 



 

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and “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus. The indenture governing the notes provides that, notwithstanding any other provision of the indenture or the notes, no holder of notes will be entitled to receive shares of our common stock upon conversion to the extent (but only to the extent) that such receipt would cause a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter. Any purported delivery of shares of our common stock upon conversion of notes will be void and have no effect to the extent (but only to the extent) that such delivery would result in a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in the notes being offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in the notes, you should consider carefully the risk factors related to the notes and this offering described below and the other risk factors incorporated herein by reference to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. If any of these risks actually occurs, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow. As a result, the market price of our common stock and, in turn, the trading price of the notes could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we think are immaterial may also materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and could result in a complete loss of your investment.

As used in this section of the prospectus supplement, the term “notes” includes the initial notes, unless the context requires otherwise.

Risks Related to the Notes and this Offering

The notes are effectively subordinated to any of our existing and future secured debt and structurally subordinated to the liabilities of our subsidiaries.

The notes will be our general unsecured obligations and will rank equal in right of payment with any other senior unsecured indebtedness we incur and senior in right of payment to any existing and future indebtedness that is contractually subordinated to the notes. The notes, however, will be effectively subordinated to our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness, other liabilities (including trade payables) and (to the extent not held by us) preferred stock, if any, of our subsidiaries. As of September 30, 2017, excluding our subsidiaries, we had no secured indebtedness and $484.75 million of senior unsecured indebtedness, and our subsidiaries had $1.4 billion of indebtedness and other liabilities.

In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to us, we, as a common equity owner of such subsidiary, and, therefore, holders of our debt, including holders of the notes, will be subject to the prior claims of such subsidiary’s creditors, including trade creditors and preferred equity holders. The provisions of the indenture governing the notes do not prohibit us from incurring additional secured indebtedness nor do they prohibit any of our subsidiaries from incurring additional indebtedness or issuing preferred stock in the future.

Our indebtedness and liabilities could limit cash flow available for our operations, expose us to risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.

As of September 30, 2017, our total consolidated liabilities were approximately $1.8 billion. We will incur an additional $100.0 million (or $115.0 million, if the underwriters fully exercise their option to purchase additional notes) of indebtedness in connection with this offering. We may also incur additional indebtedness to meet future financing needs. Our indebtedness could have significant negative consequences for our business, results of operations and financial condition, including:

 

    increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

    limiting our ability to obtain additional financing;

 

    requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, thereby reducing the amount of our cash flow available for other purposes;

 

    limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business;

 

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    dilution experienced by our existing stockholders as a result of the issuance of shares of common stock, if any, upon conversion of the notes offered hereby; and

 

    placing us at a possible competitive disadvantage with less leveraged competitors and competitors that may have better access to capital resources.

We may not continue to maintain sufficient cash reserves, our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations at levels sufficient to permit us to pay principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness, including the notes, and our cash needs may increase. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or otherwise obtain funds necessary to make required payments, or if we fail to comply with the various requirements of the notes or any other indebtedness then outstanding, we would be in default, which could permit the holders of the affected indebtedness to accelerate the maturity of such indebtedness and could cause defaults under our other indebtedness. Any default under the notes or any other indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For an additional discussion of our outstanding indebtedness, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources” included in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2017, incorporated herein by reference.

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the notes in cash or to repurchase the notes for cash upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to repurchase the notes.

Holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a repurchase price generally equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, as described under “Description of Notes—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes.” In addition, upon conversion of the notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the notes being converted as described in under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Settlement Upon Conversion.” However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of the notes upon a fundamental change or to settle conversion of the notes in cash.

In addition, our ability to repurchase the notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture will constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our other indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the notes.

Management may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree and in ways that may not yield a return to our stockholders.

Management will retain broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this public offering. Stockholders and holders of the notes may not deem such uses desirable, and our use of the proceeds may not yield a significant return or any return at all for our stockholders. We intend to use all or a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to acquire or originate our target assets, which include commercial first mortgage loans, subordinate financings, CMBS and other commercial real estate-related debt investments, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Pending such uses, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our repurchase agreements (excluding repurchase agreements secured by our CMBS portfolio). An affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, an underwriter in this offering, is the lender the JPMorgan Facility. As such, an affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may receive a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, to the extent the JPMorgan Facility is repaid. Because of the number and variability of factors that determine our use of the proceeds from this offering, our actual uses of the proceeds from this offering may vary substantially from our currently planned uses.

 

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The conversion rate of the notes may not be adjusted for all dilutive events.

The conversion rate of the notes is subject to adjustment for certain events, including, but not limited to, certain payments of dividends on our common stock above a specific threshold, the issuance of certain rights, options or warrants to holders of our common stock, subdivisions or combinations of our common stock, certain distributions of assets, debt securities, capital stock or cash to holders of our common stock and certain tender or exchange offers, as described under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Conversion Rate Adjustments.” The conversion rate will not be adjusted for other events, such as a payment of dividends on our common stock below a specified threshold or an issuance of our common stock for cash, that may adversely affect the trading price of the notes and the market price of our common stock. An event may occur that is adverse to the interests of the holders of the notes and their value, but that does not result in an adjustment to the conversion rate.

Some significant restructuring transactions may not constitute fundamental changes, in which case we would not be obligated to offer to repurchase the notes.

Upon the occurrence of specified fundamental changes, you will have the option to require us to repurchase all or any portion of your notes as described in this prospectus supplement under “Description of Notes—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes.” However, the definition of “fundamental change” is limited to specified corporate events and may not include other events that might adversely affect our financial condition or the trading price of the notes. For example, events such as leveraged recapitalizations, refinancings, restructurings or acquisitions initiated by us may not constitute a fundamental change requiring us to repurchase the notes. The occurrence of any such events would not grant the holders of the notes the right to require us to repurchase the notes, even though each of these transactions could increase the amount of our indebtedness, or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or any credit ratings, thereby adversely affecting the trading price of the notes.

The adjustment to the conversion rate for notes converted in connection with make-whole fundamental changes may not adequately compensate holders for the lost option value of their notes as a result of any such transaction. In addition, the definition of a make-whole fundamental change is limited and may not protect you from losing some of the option value of your notes in the event of a variety of transactions that do not constitute a make-whole fundamental change.

If certain corporate events that constitute a make-whole fundamental change occur, under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations, we will increase the conversion rate by a number of additional shares of our common stock. This increased conversion rate will apply only to holders who convert their notes in connection with any such transaction. The number of additional shares of our common stock will be determined based on the date on which the make-whole fundamental change transaction becomes effective and the price paid (or deemed paid) per share of our common stock in such transaction, as described in this prospectus under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change.” While the increase in the conversion rate is designed to compensate holders for the lost option value of the notes as a result of such transaction, the increase in the conversion rate is only an approximation of such lost value and may not adequately compensate holders for such loss. In addition, notwithstanding the foregoing, if the price paid (or deemed paid) for our common stock in any such transaction is greater than $21.10 per share or less than $18.10 per share (in each case, subject to adjustment in accordance with the indenture), then we will not be required to adjust the conversion rate if you convert your notes in connection with such transaction. Moreover, in no event will we increase the conversion rate pursuant to these provisions to an amount that exceeds 55.2486 shares per $1,000 principal amount of notes, subject to adjustment under certain circumstances.

Furthermore, the definition of make-whole fundamental change contained in the indenture is limited to certain enumerated transactions. As a result, the make-whole fundamental change provisions of the indenture do not afford protection to holders of the notes in the event that other transactions occur that could adversely affect

 

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the option value of the notes. For example, transactions, such as a spin-off or sale of a subsidiary with volatile earnings, or a change in our subsidiaries’ lines of business, could significantly affect the trading characteristics of our common stock and thereby reduce the option value embedded in the notes without triggering a make-whole fundamental change.

Our obligation to increase the conversion rate upon certain make-whole fundamental change transactions could be considered a penalty, in which case the enforceability thereof would be subject to general principles of reasonableness of economic remedies.

The notes do not trade on any national securities exchange and are not quoted on any interdealer quotation system. An active trading market for the notes may not develop or, if it develops, may not be maintained.

The initial notes are not listed or quoted, and we do not intend to apply to have the notes listed or quoted, on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. Although the representatives of the underwriters have informed us that certain of the underwriters intend to continue to make a market in the notes, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue market making at any time without notice. Accordingly, an active trading market may not be maintained. If an active trading market for the notes is not maintained, the market price and liquidity of the notes is likely to be adversely affected and holders may not be able to sell their notes at desired times and prices, or at all. If any of the notes are traded after their purchase, they may trade at a discount from their purchase price.

The liquidity of the trading market, if any, and future trading prices of the notes will depend on many factors, including, among other things, the market price of our common stock, prevailing interest rates, our dividend yield, financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects and credit quality relative to our competitors, the market for similar securities and the overall securities market, and may be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in any of these factors, some of which are beyond our control and others of which may not affect debt that is not convertible into capital stock. Historically, the market for convertible debt has been volatile. Market volatility could materially and adversely affect the notes, regardless of our financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects or credit quality.

The issuance of additional stock will dilute all existing stockholders and could affect the market price of our common stock and, therefore, the trading price of the notes.

Our charter authorizes us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common stock. In addition, our board of directors may, without stockholder approval, amend our charter to increase the aggregate number of shares of our common stock that we have the authority to issue. The issuance of these unissued shares, as well as any shares of our common stock issued in connection with the exercise of stock options, restricted stock units, under convertible or derivative instruments or otherwise would dilute the ownerships interests of existing stockholders (to the extent they do not participate in such issuance), including holders of any shares issued upon conversion of the notes. In addition, we may issue a substantial number of shares of our common stock upon conversion of the notes.

Recent and future regulatory actions and other events may adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of the notes.

We expect that many investors in, and potential purchasers of, the notes will employ, or seek to employ, a convertible arbitrage strategy with respect to the notes. Investors would typically implement such a strategy by selling short the shares of our common stock underlying the notes and adjusting their short position over time while continuing to hold the notes. Investors may also implement this type of strategy by entering into swaps on our common stock in lieu of or in addition to short selling our common stock.

The SEC and other regulatory and self-regulatory authorities have implemented various rules and taken certain actions, and may in the future adopt additional rules and take other actions, that may impact those

 

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engaging in short selling activity involving equity securities (including our common stock). These rules and actions include Rule 201 of SEC Regulation SHO, the adoption by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. and the national securities exchanges of a “Limit Up-Limit Down” program, the imposition of market-wide circuit breakers that halt trading of securities for certain periods following specific market declines, and the implementation of certain regulatory reforms required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. Any governmental or regulatory action that restricts the ability of investors in, or potential purchasers of, the notes to effect short sales of our common stock or enter into swaps on our common stock could adversely affect the trading price and the liquidity of the notes.

In addition, if investors and potential purchasers seeking to employ a convertible arbitrage strategy are unable to borrow or enter into swaps on our common stock, in each case on commercially reasonable terms, the trading price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected.

Upon conversion of the notes, you may receive less valuable consideration than expected because the value of our common stock may decline after you exercise your conversion right but before we settle our conversion obligation.

A converting holder will be exposed to fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock during the period from the date the holder elects to convert its notes until the date we settle our conversion obligation. We will have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, at our election to settle our conversion obligation. If we elect to settle our conversion obligation solely in cash or in a combination of cash and shares of common stock, then the amount of consideration that you will receive upon conversion of your notes will be determined by reference to the volume- weighted average prices of our common stock for each trading day in a 25 consecutive trading-day observation period as described under “Description of Notes—Settlement Upon Conversion.” Accordingly, if the trading price of our common stock decreases during this period, or after this period and until we deliver the consideration due upon conversion, the amount or value of consideration you receive will be adversely affected. In addition, if the market price of our common stock on the date we deliver the consideration due upon conversion is below the average of the volume-weighted average price of our common stock during the relevant observation period, then the amount of cash or the value of any shares of our common stock that you will receive in satisfaction of our conversion obligation will be less than the value used to determine the amount of cash or number of shares that you will receive.

The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the notes we are offering, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.

In May 2008, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued FASB Staff Position No. APB 14-1, Accounting for Convertible Debt Instruments That May Be Settled in Cash upon Conversion (Including Partial Cash Settlement), which has subsequently been codified as Accounting Standards Codification 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options, or ASC 470-20. ASC 470-20 requires an entity to separately account for the liability and equity components of convertible debt instruments whose conversion may be settled entirely or partially in cash (such as the notes we are offering) in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost for non-convertible debt. The liability component of the notes we are offering will initially be valued at the fair value of a similar debt instrument that does not have an associated equity component and will be reflected as a liability in our consolidated balance sheet. The equity component of the notes we are offering will be included in the additional paid-in capital section of our stockholders’ equity on our consolidated balance sheet, and the value of the equity component will be treated as original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component. This original issue discount will be amortized to non-cash interest expense over the term of the notes, and we will record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense in current periods as a result of this amortization. Accordingly, we will report lower net income in our financial results because ASC 470-20 will require the interest expense associated with the notes to include both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount and the notes’ coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock and the trading price of the notes.

 

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Furthermore, under certain circumstances, convertible debt instruments whose conversion may be settled entirely or partly in cash (such as the notes we are offering) are currently accounted for using the treasury stock method. Under this method, the shares issuable upon conversion of the notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share unless the conversion value of the notes exceeds their principal amount at the end of the relevant reporting period. If the conversion value exceeds their principal amount, then, for diluted earnings per share purposes, the notes are accounted for as if the number of shares of common stock that would be necessary to settle the excess, if we elected to settle the excess in shares, are issued. The accounting standards in the future may not continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If we are unable to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the shares, if any, issuable upon conversion of the notes, then our diluted earnings per share could be adversely affected. Any original issue discount recorded in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 470, Debt, or ACS 470-20, and any related amortization of that discount to interest expense over the term of the notes, would be offset to the extent we sell the notes at a premium to their principal amount.

Investing in the notes and in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk. Holders of the notes, as potential holders of our common stock, may experience losses, volatility, and poor liquidity, and we may reduce our dividends in a variety of circumstances.

An investment in the notes and in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk, particularly when compared to other types of investments. Risks related to the economy, the financial markets, our industry, our investing activity, our other business activities, our financial results, the amount of dividends we distribute, the manner in which we conduct our business and the way we have structured and limited our operations could result in a reduction in, or the elimination of, the value of our common stock, and in turn, of the notes. The level of risk associated with an investment in the notes and in our common stock may not be suitable for the risk tolerance of many investors. Investors may experience volatile returns and material losses. In addition, the trading volume of shares of our common stock may be insufficient to allow investors to sell their shares when they want to or at a price they consider reasonable.

Our earnings, cash flows, book value, and dividends can be volatile and difficult to predict. Investors in the notes and in our common stock should not rely on our estimates, projections or predictions or on management’s beliefs about future events. In particular, the sustainability of our earnings and our cash flows will depend on numerous factors, including our level of investment activity, our access to debt and equity financing, the returns we earn, payment rates on loans we invest in or originate or that underlie the mortgage backed securities or other asset-backed securities that we invest in, the expense of running our business, and other factors, including the risk factors described herein and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. As a consequence, although we seek to pay a regular common stock dividend rate that is sustainable, we may reduce our regular dividend rate, or stop paying dividends, in the future for a variety of reasons. We may not provide public warnings of dividend reductions prior to their occurrence. Changes to the amount of dividends we distribute may result in a reduction in the value of our common stock, and in turn, of the notes.

You may be subject to tax upon an adjustment to, or a failure to adjust, the conversion rate of the notes even though you do not receive a corresponding cash distribution.

The conversion rate of the notes is subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, including the payment of certain cash dividends. If the conversion rate is adjusted, you may be deemed to have received for U.S. federal income tax purposes a taxable dividend to the extent of our earnings and profits without the receipt of any cash. In addition, a failure to adjust (or adjust adequately) the conversion rate after an event that increases your proportionate interest in us could be treated as a deemed taxable dividend to you. Such deemed dividend may be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax or backup withholding, which may be set off against payments on the notes or common stock. See “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Conversion Rate Adjustments” and “Additional U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in this prospectus supplement.

 

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The notes may not be rated or may receive a lower rating than anticipated.

The initial notes are not rated, and we do not intend to seek a rating on the notes. However, if one or more rating agencies rates the notes and assigns the notes a rating lower than the rating expected by investors, or reduces their rating in the future, the trading price of the notes and the market price of our common stock could be harmed.

In addition, the trading price of the notes will be directly affected by market perceptions of our creditworthiness. Consequently, if a credit ratings agency rates any of our debt in the future or downgrades or withdraws any such rating, or puts us on credit watch, the trading price of the notes is likely to decline.

The notes are not protected by restrictive covenants.

The indenture governing the notes does not contain any financial or operating covenants or restrictions on the payments of dividends, the incurrence of indebtedness or the issuance or repurchase of securities by us or any of our subsidiaries. The indenture governing the notes does not contain any covenants or other provisions to afford protection to holders of the notes in the event of a fundamental change involving us except to the extent described in this prospectus supplement under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights—Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of Our Common Stock,” “—Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change,” “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes” and “—Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.”

Holders of the notes will not be entitled to any rights with respect to our common stock, but will be subject to all changes made with respect to our common stock.

If you hold notes, you will not be entitled to any rights with respect to our common stock (including, without limitation, voting rights and rights to receive any dividends or other distributions on our common stock) until the conversion date for those notes (if we elect to settle the conversion by delivering solely shares of our common stock, excluding cash in lieu of any fractional share) or the last trading day of the relevant observation period (if we elect to pay and deliver, as the case may be, a combination of cash and shares of our common stock in respect of the relevant conversion, and shares of common stock become due upon settlement of that conversion), but you will be subject to all changes affecting our common stock. For example, if we propose an amendment to our charter requiring stockholder approval and the record date for determining the stockholders of record entitled to vote on the amendment occurs before the date you are deemed to be the record owner of the shares of our common stock, if any, due upon conversion, you will not be entitled to vote on the amendment, although you will nevertheless be subject to any changes to the provisions of our charter.

Certain provisions in the indenture governing the notes could delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover or takeover attempt of us.

Certain provisions in the notes and the indenture could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, if a takeover would constitute a fundamental change, holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes in cash. In addition, if a takeover constitutes a make-whole fundamental change, we may be required to increase the conversion rate for holders who convert their notes in connection with such takeover. In either case, and in other cases, our obligations under the notes and the indenture could increase the cost of acquiring us or otherwise discourage a third party from acquiring us or removing incumbent management.

The notes will initially be held in book-entry form, and, therefore, holders must rely on the procedures and the relevant clearing systems to exercise their rights and remedies.

Unless and until certificated notes are issued in exchange for book-entry interests in the notes, owners of the book-entry interests will not be considered owners or holders of notes. Instead, DTC or its nominee will be the

 

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sole holder of the notes. Payments of principal, interest and other amounts owing on or in respect of the notes in global form will be made to the paying agent, which will make payments to DTC. Thereafter, such payments will be credited to DTC participants’ accounts that hold book-entry interests in the notes in global form and credited by such participants to indirect participants. Unlike holders of the notes themselves, owners of book-entry interests will not have the direct right to act upon our solicitations for consents or requests for waivers or other actions from holders of the notes. Instead, if a holder owns a book-entry interest, such holder will be permitted to act only to the extent such holder has received appropriate proxies to do so from DTC or, if applicable, a DTC participant. The procedures implemented for the granting of such proxies may not be sufficient to enable holders to vote on any requested actions on a timely basis.

The notes will share voting power with the initial notes.

The notes will be fungible with the $230,000,000 outstanding principal amount of the initial notes. Upon completion of this offering, the aggregate principal amount of outstanding notes will be $330,000,000 (or $345,000,000 if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional notes in full). Accordingly, the holders of the $100,000,000 (or $115,000,000 if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional notes in full) aggregate principal amount of the notes we are offering will be entitled to exercise only 30.3% (or 33.3% if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional notes in full) of the total voting power of the notes.

An increase in market interest rates may reduce the trading price of the notes.

In general, as market interest rates rise, notes bearing interest at fixed rates decline in value. Consequently, if market interest rates increase, the trading price of the notes we are offering may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

The net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $98.8 million (or approximately $113.6 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional notes is exercised in full) after deducting the underwriting discount and our estimated offering expenses, and including accrued interest.

We intend to use all or a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to acquire or originate our target assets, which include commercial first mortgage loans, subordinate financings, CMBS and other commercial real estate-related debt investments, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Pending such uses, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our repurchase agreements (excluding repurchase agreements secured by our CMBS portfolio).

As of November 3, 2017, the annual weighted average coupon payable on these repurchase agreements was approximately one month LIBOR + 2.32% and the aggregate borrowings outstanding were $1.4 billion. An affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC is the lender under the JPMorgan Facility and, as such, may receive a portion of the proceeds of this offering, to the extent that the JPMorgan Facility is repaid.

Until appropriate assets can be identified, our Manager may invest such proceeds in interest-bearing short- term investments, including money market accounts, that are consistent with our intention to qualify as a REIT. These investments are expected to provide a lower net return than we will seek to achieve from our target assets. For further information about our objectives and strategies, please see “Item 1. Business—Investment Strategy” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

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RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the periods indicated. The ratio of earnings to fixed charges was computed by dividing earnings by our fixed charges, and our ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends was computed by dividing earnings by our combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends. For purposes of calculating this ratio, “earnings” include pre-tax income from continuing operations before extraordinary items plus fixed charges less interest capitalized. “Fixed charges” consists of interest expense and interest capitalized. This ratio is calculated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

 

     Nine months
ended,
September 30
     For the year ended December 31,  
     2017      2016      2015      2014      2013      2012  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     3.53x        3.63x        2.91x        3.15x        11.56        5.61  

Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

     2.75x        2.76x        2.52x        2.75x        4.86        4.37x  

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of September 30, 2017 (1) on an actual basis, (2) on an as adjusted basis to reflect the issuance of the $100,000,000 principal amount of notes in this offering. You should read this table in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2017.

 

     As of September 30, 2017  
           Actual           As Adjusted(1)  
     (In thousands, except share and per share data)  

Cash

   $ 140,229     $ 238,983  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Debt:

    

Principal amount of 5.50% convertible senior notes due 2019(2)

     254,750       254,750  

Principal amount of 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022(2)

     230,000       330,000  

Borrowings under repurchase agreements(3)

     1,278,631       1,278,631  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Debt

   $ 1,763,381     $ 1,863,381  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Stockholders’ Equity:

    

Preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share; 50,000,000 shares authorized:

    

Series B preferred stock, 8,000,000 shares issued and outstanding ($200,000 aggregate liquidation preference), actual and as adjusted(4)

     80       80  

Series C preferred stock, 6,900,000 shares issued and outstanding ($172,500 aggregate liquidation preference), actual and as adjusted

     69       69  

Common stock, par value $0.01 per share; 450,000,000 shares authorized; 105,437,919 shares issued and outstanding, actual and as adjusted(5)

     1,055       1,055  

Additional paid-in capital(2)(4)(5)

     2,163,539       2,163,539  

Accumulated deficit

     (67,166     (67,166

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Stockholders’ Equity

     2,097,577       2,097,577  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Capitalization

   $ 3,860,958     $ 3,960,958  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional notes.
(2) In accordance with ASC 470-20, convertible debt that may be wholly or partially settled in cash is required to be separated into a liability and an equity component, such that interest expense reflects the issuer’s nonconvertible debt interest rate. Upon issuance, a debt discount is recognized as a decrease in debt and an increase in equity. The debt component accretes up to the principal amount over the expected term of the debt. ASC 470-20 (additional paid-in capital) does not affect the actual amount that we are required to pay, and the amounts shown in the table above for the initial notes, the notes we are offering and our 5.50% convertible senior notes due 2019 (the “2019 notes”) are the aggregate principal amount of such notes, without reflecting the debt discount or fees and expenses that we are required to recognize, the increase in additional paid-in capital or the actual net proceeds to us from the offerings of the initial notes, the notes we are offering and the 2019 notes. As of September 30, 2017, the carrying amounts of the debt components of the initial notes and the 2019 notes were approximately $220.5 million and $251.4 million, respectively.
(3) Net of deferred financing costs of $10.9 million. We may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our repurchase agreements (excluding repurchase agreements secured by our CMBS portfolio). See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

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(4) Does not give effect to the repurchase from QH RE Asset Company LLC, a Qatar limited liability company, or QHREAC, of 1,229,607 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock for an aggregate purchase price of $30.8 million.
(5) Does not give effect to the sale to QHREAC of 1,670,000 shares of our common stock, for cash, for an aggregate purchase price of $30.8 million.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

In August 2017, we issued $230,000,000 aggregate principal amount of our 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 (the “initial notes”) pursuant to a base indenture (the “base indenture”), dated as of March 17, 2014, between us and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee (the “trustee”), as supplemented by a second supplemental indenture dated as of August 21, 2017 (the “supplemental indenture”). In this section, we refer to the base indenture, as supplemented by the supplemental indenture, collectively, as the “indenture.”

We will issue the 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2022 offered hereby (the “notes”) pursuant to the indenture. The notes will have substantially identical terms, and will have the same CUSIP number, as the initial notes. The initial notes and the notes will be treated as a single series of securities for all purposes under the indenture, including, without limitation, waivers, amendments and offers to purchase. Holders of the initial notes, the notes and any additional notes of the same series that we issue in the future pursuant to the indenture will vote as one class under the indenture.

This description of the notes supplements and, to the extent it is inconsistent, replaces the description of the general provisions of the notes and the base indenture in the accompanying prospectus.

The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the notes and the indenture and does not purport to be complete. This summary is subject to and is qualified by reference to all the provisions of the notes and the indenture, including the definitions of certain terms used in the indenture. The terms of the notes include those expressly set forth in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We urge you to read the indenture because it, and not this description, defines your rights as a holder of the notes. You may request a copy of the indenture from us. The base indenture and the supplemental indenture are filed or incorporated by reference as exhibits to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 21, 2017, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information and Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement.

For purposes of this description, references to “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer only to Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries.

General

The notes will:

 

    be our general unsecured, senior obligations;

 

    bear cash interest from, and including, August 21, 2017 at an annual rate of 4.75%, payable semi- annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on February 15, 2018, provided that the final interest payment date will occur on August 23, 2022, and no interest payment date will occur on August 15, 2022;

 

    only to the extent necessary to preserve our status as a REIT, will be redeemable at our election prior to maturity, at a cash redemption price equal to the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date (as described under “—Redemption of Notes to Preserve REIT Status”);

 

    be subject to repurchase by us at the option of the holders following a fundamental change (as defined below under “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes”), at a repurchase price generally equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date;

 

    mature on August 23, 2022, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased;

 

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    be issued in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000; and

 

    be represented by one or more registered notes in global form, but in certain limited circumstances may be represented by notes in definitive form. See “—Book-Entry, Settlement and Clearance.”

The notes may be converted based on an initial conversion rate of 50.2260 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $19.91 per share of common stock). The conversion rate is subject to adjustment if certain events occur.

We will settle conversions of notes by paying or delivering, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election, as described under “— Conversion Rights—Settlement Upon Conversion.” You will not receive any separate cash payment for interest, if any, accrued and unpaid to the conversion date except under the limited circumstances described below.

Any conversion of notes into shares of our common stock will be subject to certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, as more fully described in “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable upon Conversion.”

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt, including secured debt, that may be issued by us or our subsidiaries. The indenture does not contain any financial covenants and does not restrict us from paying dividends or issuing or repurchasing our other securities. Other than restrictions described under “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes” and “—Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” below, and except for the provisions set forth under “—Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change,” the indenture does not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to afford holders of the notes protection in the event of a highly leveraged transaction involving us or in the event of a decline in our credit rating as the result of a takeover, recapitalization, highly leveraged transaction or similar restructuring involving us that could adversely affect such holders.

We may, without the consent of the holders of the notes or the initial notes, reopen the indenture and issue additional notes under the indenture with the same terms and the same CUSIP number as the notes offered hereby (other than differences in the issue price and interest accrued prior to the issue date of such additional notes) in an unlimited aggregate principal amount. However, if any such additional notes are not fungible with the notes offered hereby for U.S. federal income tax purposes, then such additional notes will have a separate CUSIP number.

No sinking fund will be provided for the notes.

The initial notes are not listed or quoted, and we do not intend to apply to have the notes listed or quoted, on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system.

Redemption of Notes to Preserve REIT Status

We may not redeem the notes prior to their maturity, except to the extent, and only to the extent, necessary to preserve our status as a REIT. If we determine that redeeming the notes is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT, then we may redeem all or part (in a principal amount that is an integral multiple of $1,000) of the notes at a cash redemption price equal to the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date. However, if the redemption date for a note is after a regular record date for the payment of interest and on or prior to the corresponding interest payment date, then (i) we will pay, on or before such interest payment date, the full amount of accrued and unpaid interest payable on such note on such interest payment date to the holder of record of such note at the close of business on such regular record date; and (ii) the redemption price will not include such accrued and unpaid interest.

 

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We will send to each applicable holder notice of the redemption containing certain information set forth in the indenture, including the redemption price and the redemption date. The redemption date will be a business day of our choosing that is no more than fifty, nor less than thirty, scheduled trading days after the date we send the related redemption notice.

Notes called for redemption must be delivered to the paying agent (in the case of certificated notes) or DTC’s procedures must be complied with (in the case of global notes) for the holder of those notes to be entitled to receive the redemption price.

If only a portion of a note is subject to redemption and that note is converted in part, then the converted portion of that note will be deemed to be from the portion of that note that was subject to redemption.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary above, no notes may be redeemed on any date if the principal amount of the notes and the initial notes has been accelerated, and such acceleration has not been rescinded, on or prior to such date (except in the case of an acceleration resulting from a default by us in the payment of the applicable redemption price with respect to such notes and the initial notes).

Purchase and Cancellation

We will cause all notes surrendered for payment, redemption, repurchase (including as described below), registration of transfer or exchange or conversion, if surrendered to any person other than the trustee (including any of our agents, subsidiaries or affiliates), to be delivered to the trustee for cancellation. All notes delivered to the trustee shall be cancelled promptly by the trustee in accordance with its customary procedures. No notes shall be authenticated in exchange for any notes cancelled as provided in the indenture.

We may, to the extent permitted by law, and directly or indirectly (regardless of whether such notes are surrendered to us), repurchase notes in the open market or otherwise, whether by us or our subsidiaries or through a private or public tender or exchange offer or through counterparties to private agreements, including by cash-settled swaps or other derivatives, in each case without prior notice to the holders of the notes. We will cause any notes so repurchased (other than notes repurchased pursuant to cash-settled swaps or other derivatives) to be surrendered to the trustee for cancellation, and they will no longer be considered “outstanding” under the indenture upon their repurchase.

Payments on the Notes; Paying Agent and Registrar; Transfer and Exchange

We will pay or cause the paying agent to pay the principal of, and interest on, notes in global form registered in the name of or held by DTC or its nominee in immediately available funds to DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered holder of such global note.

We will pay or cause the paying agent to pay the principal of any certificated notes at the office or agency designated by us for that purpose. We have initially designated the trustee as our paying agent and registrar and its corporate trust office in New York, New York, as a place where notes may be presented for payment or for registration of transfer. We may, however, change the paying agent or registrar without prior notice to the holders of the notes, and we may act as paying agent or registrar. Interest on certificated notes will be payable (i) to holders holding certificated notes having an aggregate principal amount of $5,000,000 or less, by check mailed to the holders of these notes and (ii) to holders holding certificated notes having an aggregate principal amount of more than $5,000,000, either by check mailed to each holder or, upon written application by such a holder to the registrar not later than the relevant regular record date, by wire transfer in immediately available funds to that holder’s account within the United States, which application shall remain in effect until the holder notifies, in writing, the registrar to the contrary.

A holder of notes may transfer or exchange notes at the office of the registrar in accordance with the indenture. The registrar and the trustee may require a holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate

 

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endorsements and transfer documents. No service charge will be imposed by us, the trustee or the registrar for any registration of transfer or exchange of notes, but we may require a holder to pay a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or other similar governmental charge required by law or permitted by the indenture. We are not required to transfer or exchange any note surrendered for conversion or required repurchase or selected for redemption.

In connection with any proposed transfer outside the book entry only system, we or the Depository Trust Company, or DTC, shall, as required by law, provide or cause to be provided to the trustee all information necessary to allow the trustee to comply with any applicable tax reporting obligations, including without limitation any cost basis reporting obligations under Internal Revenue Code Section 6045. The trustee may rely on information provided to it and shall have no responsibility to verify or ensure the accuracy of such information, except as required by law. The trustee may rely on information provided to it and shall have no responsibility to verify or ensure the accuracy of such information, except as required by law.

The registered holder of a note will be treated as its owner for all purposes.

Interest

The notes will bear cash interest at a rate of 4.75% per year until maturity. Interest on the notes will accrue from, and including, August 21, 2017 or from the most recent date on which interest has been paid or duly provided for. Interest will be payable semi-annually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on February 15, 2018. However, the final interest payment date will occur on August 23, 2022, and no interest payment date will occur on August 15, 2022.

Interest will be paid to the person in whose name a note is registered at the close of business on February 1 or August 1, as the case may be, immediately preceding the relevant interest payment date, whether or not a business day (each, a “regular record date”). Interest on the notes will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months and, for partial months, on the basis of the number of days actually elapsed in a 30-day month.

For purposes of this description, “close of business” means 5:00 p.m., New York City time, and “open of business” means 9:00 a.m., New York City time.

If any interest payment date, the maturity date or any earlier required repurchase date upon a fundamental change of a note falls on a day that is not a business day, the required payment will be made on the next succeeding business day and no interest on such payment will accrue in respect of the delay. The term “business day” means, with respect to any note, any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is authorized or required by law or executive order to close or be closed.

The terms of the notes provide that we are permitted to withhold from interest payments and payments upon conversion, redemption or maturity of the notes any amounts we are required to withhold by law. For example, non-United States holders of notes may, under some circumstances, be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax with respect to payments of interest on the notes. See “Additional U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations— Taxation of Noteholders—Non-U.S. Holders of Notes.”

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to interest in this prospectus supplement include additional interest, if any, payable at our election as the sole remedy relating to the failure to comply with our reporting obligations as described under “—Events of Default.”

Ranking

The notes will be our general unsecured obligations that rank senior in right of payment to all of our existing and future indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the notes. The notes will rank equal

 

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in right of payment with all of our existing and future liabilities that are not so subordinated. The notes will effectively rank junior to any of our secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. In the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up, our assets that secure secured debt will be available to pay obligations on the notes only after all indebtedness under such secured debt has been repaid in full from such assets. The notes will rank structurally junior to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities and (to the extent we are not a holder thereof) preferred stock, if any, of our subsidiaries (including trade payables).

As of September 30, 2017, excluding our subsidiaries, we had no secured indebtedness and $484.75 million of senior unsecured indebtedness, and our subsidiaries had $1.4 billion of indebtedness and other liabilities. We will incur an additional $100.0 million (or $115.0 million, if the underwriters fully exercise their option to purchase additional notes) of indebtedness in connection with this offering.

Our subsidiaries have no obligation to pay any amounts due on the notes or the initial notes or to provide us with funds for our payment obligations, whether by dividends, distributions, loans or other payments. In addition, any payment of dividends, distributions, loans or advances by our subsidiaries to us could be subject to statutory or contractual restrictions. Payments to us by our subsidiaries will also be contingent upon our subsidiaries’ earnings. We may not be able to pay the cash portions of any settlement amount due upon conversion of the notes or the initial notes, or to pay cash for the fundamental change repurchase price upon a fundamental change if a holder requires us to repurchase notes or initial notes as described below. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Notes and this Offering—We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the notes in cash or to repurchase the notes for cash upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to repurchase the notes.”

Conversion Rights

General

Prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders may convert all or any portion of their notes, in integral multiples of $1,000 principal amount, at any time.

Any conversion of notes into shares of our common stock will be subject to certain ownership limitations more fully described in “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable Upon Conversion.”

The conversion rate initially will be 50.2260 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $19.91 per share of common stock). Upon conversion of a note, we will satisfy our conversion obligation by paying or delivering, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election, all as set forth below under “—Settlement Upon Conversion.” If we satisfy our conversion obligation solely in cash or through payment and delivery, as the case may be, of a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, the amount of cash and the number of shares of common stock, if any, due upon conversion will be based on a daily conversion value (as defined below under “—Settlement Upon Conversion”) calculated for each trading day in a 25 trading day observation period (as defined below under “—Settlement Upon Conversion”). The trustee initially will act as the conversion agent.

Upon conversion, you will not receive any separate cash payment for accrued and unpaid interest, if any, except as described below. We will not issue fractional shares of our common stock upon conversion of notes. Instead, we will pay cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share as described under “—Settlement Upon Conversion.” Our payment and delivery, as the case may be, to you of the cash, shares of our common stock or a

 

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combination thereof, as the case may be, into which a note is convertible will be deemed to satisfy in full our obligation to pay:

 

    the principal amount of the note; and

 

    accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the relevant conversion date.

As a result, except as described below, accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the relevant conversion date will be deemed to be paid in full rather than cancelled, extinguished or forfeited. Upon a conversion of notes into a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, accrued and unpaid interest will be deemed to be paid first out of the cash paid upon such conversion.

Notwithstanding the above, if notes are converted after the close of business on a regular record date for the payment of interest, holders of such notes at the close of business on such regular record date will receive the full amount of interest payable on such notes on the corresponding interest payment date notwithstanding the conversion. Notes surrendered for conversion during the period after the close of business on any regular record date to the open of business on the immediately following interest payment date must be accompanied by funds equal to the amount of interest payable, on such interest payment date, on such notes; provided, that no such payment need be made:

 

    for conversions following the regular record date immediately preceding the maturity date;

 

    if we have specified a redemption date that is after a regular record date and on or prior to the business day immediately after the corresponding interest payment date;

 

    if we have specified a fundamental change repurchase date that is after a regular record date and on or prior to the corresponding interest payment date; or

 

    to the extent of any overdue interest, if any overdue interest exists at the time of conversion with respect to such note.

Therefore, for the avoidance of doubt, all record holders as of the close of business on the regular record date immediately preceding the maturity date will receive the full interest payment due on the maturity date regardless of whether their notes have been converted following such regular record date.

If a holder converts notes, we will pay any documentary, stamp or similar issue or transfer tax due on any issuance of any shares of our common stock upon the conversion, unless the tax is due because the holder requests any such shares to be issued in a name other than the holder’s name, in which case the holder will pay that tax.

Any conversion of notes into shares of our common stock will be subject to certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, as more fully described in “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable Upon Conversion.”

Conversion Procedures

If you hold a beneficial interest in a global note, to convert you must comply with DTC’s procedures for converting a beneficial interest in a global note and, if required, pay funds equal to interest payable on the next interest payment date.

If you hold a certificated note, to convert you must:

 

    complete and manually sign the conversion notice on the back of the note, or a facsimile of the conversion notice;

 

    deliver the conversion notice, which is irrevocable, and the note to the conversion agent;

 

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    if required, furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents; and

 

    if required, pay funds equal to interest payable on the next interest payment date.

We refer to the date you comply with the relevant procedures for conversion described above as the “conversion date.”

If a holder has delivered a repurchase notice as described under “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes” with respect to a note, the holder may not convert that note until the holder has withdrawn the repurchase notice in accordance with the relevant provisions of the indenture. If a holder submits its notes for required repurchase, the holder’s right to withdraw the repurchase notice and convert the notes that are subject to repurchase will terminate at the close of business on the business day immediately preceding the relevant fundamental change repurchase date.

Settlement Upon Conversion

Upon conversion, we may choose to pay or deliver, as the case may be, either cash (“cash settlement”), shares of our common stock (“physical settlement”) or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock (“combination settlement”), as described below. We refer to each of these settlement methods as a “settlement method.”

Subject to the limitations on conversions that would cause a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter and described in “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable Upon Conversion,” we will use the same settlement method for all conversions occurring on the same conversion date, but we will not have any obligation to use the same settlement method with respect to conversions that occur on different conversion dates. That is, we may choose for notes converted on one conversion date to settle conversions with physical settlement, and choose cash settlement or combination settlement for notes converted on another conversion date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all conversions with a conversion date occurring on or after May 15, 2022 will be settled using the same settlement method, and we will notify holders of that settlement method no later than May 15, 2022.

If we elect a settlement method, we will inform holders so converting through the conversion agent and the trustee of the settlement method we have selected no later than the close of business on the trading day immediately following the related conversion date (or, with respect to conversions with a conversion date occurring on or after May 15, 2022, no later than May 15, 2022). If we do not timely elect a settlement method, we will no longer have the right to elect cash settlement or physical settlement and we will be deemed to have elected combination settlement in respect of our conversion obligation, as described below, and the specified dollar amount (as defined below) per $1,000 principal amount of notes will be equal to $1,000. If we elect combination settlement, but we do not timely notify converting holders of the specified dollar amount per $1,000 principal amount of notes, such specified dollar amount will be deemed to be $1,000. However, notwithstanding anything to the contrary above, if we call any notes or initial notes for redemption, then (i) we will specify in the related redemption notice the settlement method that will apply to all conversions with a conversion date that occurs on or after the date we send such redemption notice and before the related redemption date; and (ii) if the related redemption date is on or after May 15, 2022, then such settlement method must be the same settlement method that applies to all conversions with a conversion date that occurs on or after May 15, 2022.

It is our current intent and policy to settle conversions through combination settlement with a specified dollar amount per $1,000 principal amount of notes of $1,000.

Settlement amounts will be computed as follows:

 

    if we elect physical settlement, we will deliver to the converting holder, in respect of each $1,000 principal amount of notes being converted, a number of shares of common stock equal to the conversion rate;

 

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    if we elect cash settlement, we will pay to the converting holder, in respect of each $1,000 principal amount of notes being converted, cash in an amount equal to the sum of the daily conversion values for each of the 25 consecutive trading days during the related observation period; and

 

    if we elect (or are deemed to have elected) combination settlement, we will pay or deliver, as the case may be, to the converting holder, in respect of each $1,000 principal amount of notes being converted, a “settlement amount” equal to the sum of the daily settlement amounts for each of the 25 consecutive trading days during the related observation period.

The “daily settlement amount,” for each of the 25 consecutive trading days during the observation period, shall consist of:

 

    cash equal to the lesser of (i) the maximum cash amount per $1,000 principal amount of notes to be received upon conversion (excluding cash in lieu of any fractional share of our common stock) as specified in the notice specifying our chosen settlement method or as otherwise deemed to have been specified by us (the “specified dollar amount”), divided by 25 (such quotient, the “daily measurement value”) and (ii) the daily conversion value; and

 

    if the daily conversion value exceeds the daily measurement value, a number of shares equal to (i) the difference between the daily conversion value and the daily measurement value, divided by (ii) the daily VWAP for such trading day.

The “daily conversion value” means, for each of the 25 consecutive trading days during the observation period, one-25th of the product of (1) the conversion rate on such trading day and (2) the daily VWAP on such trading day.

The “daily VWAP” means, for each of the 25 consecutive trading days during the relevant observation period, the per share volume-weighted average price as displayed under the heading “Bloomberg VWAP” on Bloomberg page “ARI UN<equity> AQR” (or its equivalent successor if such page is not available) in respect of the period from the scheduled open of trading until the scheduled close of trading of the primary trading session on such trading day (or if such volume-weighted average price is unavailable, the market value of one share of our common stock on such trading day determined, using a volume-weighted average method, by a nationally recognized independent investment banking firm retained for this purpose by us). The “daily VWAP” will be determined without regard to after-hours trading or any other trading outside of the regular trading session trading hours.

The “observation period” with respect to any note surrendered for conversion means:

 

    subject to the immediately following bullet point, if the relevant conversion date occurs prior to May 15, 2022, the 25 consecutive trading day period beginning on, and including, the second trading day immediately succeeding such conversion date;

 

    if the relevant conversion date occurs on or after the date we have sent a redemption notice calling such note for redemption and before the related redemption date, the 25 consecutive trading day period beginning on, and including, the 26th scheduled trading day immediately preceding such redemption date; and

 

    subject to the immediately preceding bullet point, if the relevant conversion date occurs on or after May 15, 2022, the 25 consecutive trading days beginning on, and including, the 26th scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date.

For the purposes of determining amounts due upon conversion only, “trading day” means a day on which (i) there is no “market disruption event” (as defined below) and (ii) trading in our common stock generally occurs on The New York Stock Exchange or, if our common stock is not then listed on The New York Stock Exchange, on the principal other U.S. national or regional securities exchange on which our common stock is then listed or, if our common stock is not then listed on a U.S. national or regional securities exchange, on the principal other market on which our common stock is then listed or admitted for trading; provided, however, that if our common stock is not so listed or admitted for trading, “trading day” means a “business day.” For all other purposes, “trading day” means

 

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a day on which (i) trading in our common stock generally occurs on the principal U.S. national or regional securities exchange or market on which our common stock is listed or admitted for trading and (ii) a “last reported sale price” (as defined below) for our common stock is available; provided, however, that if our common stock is not listed or traded on any exchange or other market, “trading day” means a “business day.”

“Scheduled trading day” means a day that is scheduled to be a trading day on the principal U.S. national or regional securities exchange or market on which our common stock is listed or admitted for trading. If our common stock is not so listed or admitted for trading, “scheduled trading day” means a “business day.”

“Market disruption event” means (i) a failure by the primary U.S. national or regional securities exchange or market on which our common stock is listed or admitted for trading to open for trading during its regular trading session or (ii) the occurrence or existence prior to 1:00 p.m., New York City time, on any scheduled trading day for our common stock for more than one half-hour period in the aggregate during regular trading hours of any suspension or limitation imposed on trading (by reason of movements in price exceeding limits permitted by the relevant stock exchange or otherwise) in our common stock or in any options contracts or futures contracts relating to our common stock.

Except as described under “—Increase in Conversion Rate upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change,” “—Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of Our Common Stock” and “—Conversion Rate Adjustments,” we will deliver the consideration due in respect of conversion on the second business day immediately following the relevant conversion date, if we elect physical settlement, or on the second business day immediately following the last trading day of the relevant observation period, in the case of any other settlement method. We refer to the date on which we are required to deliver the consideration due upon conversion as the “conversion settlement date.”

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary above, we will pay cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share of common stock issuable upon conversion based on the daily VWAP on the relevant conversion date (in the case of physical settlement) or based on the daily VWAP on the last trading day of the relevant observation period (in the case of combination settlement).

Each conversion will be deemed to have been effected as to any notes surrendered for conversion on the conversion date; provided, however, that the person in whose name any shares of our common stock shall be issuable upon such conversion will be deemed to be the holder of record of such shares as of the close of business on the conversion date (in the case of physical settlement) or the last trading day of the relevant observation period (in the case of combination settlement).

Conversion Rate Adjustments

The conversion rate will be adjusted as described below, except that we will not make any adjustments to the conversion rate if each holder of the notes and the initial notes participates (other than in the case of a stock split or stock combination), at the same time and upon the same terms as holders of our common stock and solely as a result of holding the notes or initial notes, in any of the transactions described below without having to convert its notes or initial notes as if such holder held a number of shares of common stock equal to the conversion rate, multiplied by the principal amount (expressed in thousands) of notes or initial notes held by such holder.

 

  (1) If we exclusively issue shares of our common stock as a dividend or distribution on all or substantially all shares of our common stock, or if we effect a stock split or stock combination (in each case, excluding a distribution solely pursuant to a “common stock change event,” as to which the provisions described below under the caption “—Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of Our Common Stock” will apply), the conversion rate will be adjusted based on the following formula:

 

       

CR1

  =   CR0 X  

OS1

              OS0

 

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where,

 

  CR0        =      the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the open of business on the ex-dividend date (as defined below) of such dividend or distribution, or immediately prior to the open of business on the effective date (as defined below) of such stock split or stock combination, as applicable;
  CR1        =      the conversion rate in effect immediately after the open of business on such ex-dividend date or effective date, as applicable;
  OS0        =      the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to the open of business on such ex-dividend date or effective date, as applicable; and
  OS1        =      the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to such dividend, distribution, stock split or stock combination, as applicable.

Any adjustment made under this clause (1) shall become effective immediately after the open of business on the ex-dividend date for such dividend or distribution, or immediately after the open of business on the effective date for such stock split or stock combination, as applicable. If any dividend, distribution, stock split or stock combination of the type described in this clause (1) is declared but not so paid or made, the conversion rate shall be immediately readjusted, effective as of the date our board of directors or a committee thereof determines not to pay such dividend or distribution or effect such stock split or stock combination to the conversion rate that would then be in effect if such dividend or distribution or stock split or stock combination had not been declared or announced.

 

  (2) If we issue to all or substantially all holders of our common stock any rights, options or warrants entitling them, for a period of not more than 45 calendar days after the announcement date of such issuance, to subscribe for or purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share that is less than the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock for the 10 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date of announcement of such issuance (other than rights issued or otherwise distributed pursuant to a preferred stock rights plan, as to which the provisions described below in paragraph (3) and under the caption “—Stockholder rights plans” will apply), the conversion rate will be increased based on the following formula:

 

 

CR1

  =   CR0 X  

OS0 + X

        OS0 + Y

where,

 

  CR0        =      the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the open of business on the ex-dividend date for such issuance;
  CR1        =      the conversion rate in effect immediately after the open of business on such ex-dividend date;
  OS0        =      the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to the open of business on such ex-dividend date;
  X        =      the total number of shares of our common stock issuable pursuant to such rights, options or warrants; and
  Y        =      the number of shares of our common stock equal to the aggregate price payable to exercise such rights, options or warrants, divided by the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock over the 10 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date of announcement of the issuance of such rights, options or warrants.

The “last reported sale price” of our common stock on any date means the closing sale price per share (or if no closing sale price is reported, the average of the bid and ask prices or, if more than one in either case, the average of the average bid and the average ask prices) on that date as reported in

 

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composite transactions for the principal U.S. national or regional securities exchange on which our common stock is traded. If our common stock is not listed for trading on a U.S. national or regional securities exchange on the relevant date, the “last reported sale price” will be the last quoted bid price per share for our common stock in the over-the-counter market on the relevant date as reported by OTC Markets Group, Inc. or a similar organization. If our common stock is not so quoted, the “last reported sale price” will be the average of the mid-point of the last bid and ask prices per share for our common stock on the relevant date from each of at least three nationally recognized independent investment banking firms selected by us for this purpose. The “last reported sale price” will be determined without regard to after-hours trading or any other trading outside of regular trading session hours.

Any increase made under this clause (2) will be made successively whenever any such rights, options or warrants are issued and shall become effective immediately after the open of business on the ex-dividend date for such issuance. To the extent that shares of common stock are not delivered after the expiration of such rights, options or warrants, the conversion rate shall be decreased to the conversion rate that would then be in effect had the increase with respect to the issuance of such rights, options or warrants been made on the basis of delivery of only the number of shares of common stock actually delivered. If such rights, options or warrants are not so issued, the conversion rate shall be decreased to the conversion rate that would then be in effect if such ex-dividend date for such issuance had not occurred.

For the purpose of this clause (2), in determining whether any rights, options or warrants entitle the holders to subscribe for or purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share price that is less than such average of the last reported sale prices for the 10 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date of announcement of such issuance, and in determining the aggregate price payable to exercise such rights, options or warrants, there shall be taken into account any consideration received by us for such rights, options or warrants and any amount payable on exercise or conversion thereof, the value of such consideration, if other than cash, to be determined by our board of directors or a committee thereof.

 

  (3) If we distribute shares of our capital stock, evidences of our indebtedness, other assets or property of ours or rights, options or warrants to acquire our capital stock or other securities, to all or substantially all holders of our common stock, excluding:

 

    dividends, distributions or issuances as to which an adjustment was effected (or would have been effected without regard to the “deferral exception” (as defined below)) pursuant to clause (1) or (2) above;

 

    rights issued or otherwise distributed pursuant to a preferred stock rights plan, except to the extent provided below under the caption “—Stockholder rights plans”;

 

    dividends or distributions paid exclusively in cash as to which an adjustment was effected (or would have been effected without regard to the deferral exception) pursuant to clause (4) below;

 

    cash dividends that do not result in an adjustment to the conversion rate pursuant to clause (4) below;

 

    a distribution solely pursuant to a “common stock change event,” as to which the provisions described below under the caption “—Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of Our Common Stock” will apply; and

 

    spin-offs as to which the provisions set forth below in this clause (3) shall apply,

then the conversion rate will be increased based on the following formula:

 

 

CR1

  =   CR0 X  

SP0

        SP0 – FMV

 

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where,

 

CR0      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the open of business on the ex-dividend date for such distribution;
CR1      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately after the open of business on such ex-dividend date;
SP0      =      the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock over the 10 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the ex-dividend date for such distribution; and
FMV      =      the fair market value (as determined by our board of directors or a committee thereof) of the shares of capital stock, evidences of indebtedness, assets, property, rights, options or warrants distributed with respect to each outstanding share of our common stock on the ex-dividend date for such distribution.

Any increase made under the portion of this clause (3) above will become effective immediately after the open of business on the ex- dividend date for such distribution. If such distribution is not so paid or made, or if any rights, options or warrants are not exercised before their expiration date, the conversion rate shall be readjusted to be the conversion rate that would then be in effect if such distribution had not been declared or on the basis of the rights, options or warrants actually exercised before their expiration date, as applicable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if “FMV” (as defined above) is equal to or greater than “SP0” (as defined above), in lieu of the foregoing increase, each holder of a note shall receive, in respect of each $1,000 principal amount thereof, at the same time and upon the same terms as holders of our common stock, the amount and kind of our capital stock, evidences of our indebtedness, other assets or property of ours or rights, options or warrants to acquire our capital stock or other securities that such holder would have received if such holder owned a number of shares of common stock equal to the conversion rate in effect on the record date for the distribution.

With respect to an adjustment pursuant to this clause (3) where there has been a payment of a dividend or other distribution on our common stock of shares of capital stock of any class or series, or similar equity interest, of or relating to a subsidiary or other business unit of ours, and such capital stock or equity interest is, or, when issued, will be, listed or admitted for trading on a U.S. national securities exchange, which we refer to as a “spin-off,” the conversion rate will be increased based on the following formula:

 

 

CR1

  =   CR0 X  

FMV0 + MP0

        MP0

where,

 

CR0      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the open of business on the ex-dividend date of the spin-off;
CR1      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately after the open of business on the ex-dividend date of the spin-off;
FMV0      =      the average of the last reported sale prices of the capital stock or similar equity interest distributed to holders of our common stock applicable to one share of our common stock (determined by reference to the definition of last reported sale price set forth above as if references therein to our common stock were instead to such capital stock or similar equity interest) over the first 10 consecutive trading day period after, and including, the ex-dividend date of the spin-off (the “valuation period”); and
MP0      =      the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock over the valuation period.

The adjustment to the conversion rate under the preceding paragraph will be calculated as of the close of business on the last trading day of the valuation period but will be given effect as of immediately

 

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after the open of business on the ex-dividend date of the spin-off. Because we will make the adjustment to the conversion rate with retroactive effect, we will delay the settlement of any conversion of notes where the conversion date (in the case of physical settlement) or any trading day of the applicable observation period (in the case of cash settlement or combination settlement) occurs during the valuation period until the second business day after the last day of the valuation period. If any distribution of the type described in this clause (3) is declared but not so made, the conversion rate shall be immediately readjusted, effective as of the date our board of directors or a committee thereof determines not to make such distribution, to the conversion rate that would then be in effect if such distribution had not been declared.

 

  (4) If any cash dividend or distribution is made to all or substantially all holders of our common stock, to the extent that the aggregate of all such cash dividends or distributions paid in any calendar quarter exceeds the dividend threshold amount (as defined below) for such calendar quarter, the conversion rate will be adjusted based on the following formula:

 

 

CR1 = CR0 X

 

SP0

SP0 – C

   

where,

 

CR0      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the open of business on the ex-dividend date for such dividend or distribution;
CR1      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately after the open of business on the ex-dividend date for such dividend or distribution;
SP0      =      the last reported sale price of our common stock on the trading day immediately preceding the ex-dividend date for such dividend or distribution;
DTA      =      the dividend threshold amount, which shall initially be $0.46 per share per calendar quarter; and
C      =      the amount in cash per share we dividend or distribute to holders of our common stock in excess of the DTA.

The DTA is subject to adjustment on an inversely proportional basis whenever the conversion rate is adjusted other than adjustments made pursuant to this clause (4).

Any increase to the conversion rate made under this clause (4) shall become effective immediately after the open of business on the ex- dividend date for the dividend or distribution triggering such adjustment. If such dividend or distribution is not so paid, the conversion rate shall be readjusted, effective as of the date our board of directors or a committee thereof determines not to make or pay such dividend or distribution, to be the conversion rate that would then be in effect if such dividend or distribution had not been declared. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if “C” (as defined above) is equal to or greater than “SP0” (as defined above), in lieu of the foregoing increase, each holder of a note shall receive, for each $1,000 principal amount of notes, at the same time and upon the same terms as holders of shares of our common stock, the amount of cash that such holder would have received if such holder owned a number of shares of our common stock equal to the conversion rate in effect on the record date for such cash dividend or distribution.

 

  (5) If we or any of our subsidiaries make a payment in respect of a tender or exchange offer for our common stock, to the extent that the cash and value of any other consideration included in the payment per share of common stock exceeds the last reported sale price of our common stock on the trading day next succeeding the last date (such last date, the “expiration date”) on which tenders or exchanges may be made pursuant to such tender or exchange offer, the conversion rate will be increased based on the following formula:

 

 

CR1

  =   CR0 X  

AC + (SP1 x OS1)

        OS0 x SP1

 

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where,

 

CR0      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately prior to the close of business on the expiration date;
CR1      =      the conversion rate in effect immediately after the close of business on the expiration date;
AC      =      the aggregate value of all cash and any other consideration (as determined by our board of directors or a committee thereof) paid or payable for shares purchased or exchanged in such tender or exchange offer;
OS0      =      the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately prior to the time (the “expiration time”) such tender or exchange offer expires (prior to giving effect to the purchase or exchange of all shares accepted for purchase or exchange in such tender or exchange offer);
OS1      =      the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after the expiration time (after giving effect to the purchase or exchange of all shares accepted for purchase or exchange in such tender or exchange offer); and
SP1      =      the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock over the 10 consecutive trading day period (the “averaging period”) commencing on, and including, the trading day next succeeding the date such tender or exchange offer expires.

The adjustment to the conversion rate under this clause (5) will be calculated as of the close of business on the last trading day of the averaging period but will be given effect as of immediately after the close of business on the expiration date. Because we will make the adjustment to the conversion rate with retroactive effect, we will delay the settlement of any conversion of notes where the conversion date (in the case of physical settlement) or any trading day of the applicable observation period (in the case of cash settlement or combination settlement) occurs during the averaging period until the second business day after the last day of the averaging period.

To the extent such tender or exchange offer is announced but not consummated (including as a result of being precluded from consummating such tender or exchange offer under applicable law), or any purchases or exchanges of shares of common stock in such tender or exchange offer are rescinded, the conversion rate will be readjusted to the conversion rate that would then be in effect had the adjustment been made on the basis of only the purchases or exchanges of shares of common stock, if any, actually made, and not rescinded, in such tender or exchange offer.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, if, in the case of any conversion of a note to which physical settlement or combination settlement applies, any whole shares of our common stock are deliverable in respect of such conversion (in the case of physical settlement) or in respect of any trading day during the observation period for such note (in the case of combination settlement), and:

 

    the record date for any issuance, dividend or distribution, the effective date for any stock split or combination or the expiration date for any tender or exchange offer by us that, in each case, would require an adjustment to the conversion rate under clauses (1) through (5) above occurs, but an adjustment to the conversion rate for such event has not yet become effective as of the relevant conversion date (in the case of physical settlement) or such trading day (in the case of combination settlement), as applicable; and

 

    such shares that we will deliver to the converting holder with respect of such conversion (in the case of physical settlement) or such trading day (in the case of combination settlement), as applicable, are not entitled to participate in the relevant event (because the converting holder is not treated as the record holder of such shares on the related record date, effective date, expiration date or otherwise),

 

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then, solely for purposes of such conversion, we will, without duplication, give effect to such adjustment on such conversion date (in the case of physical settlement) or such trading day (in the case of combination settlement). In such case, if the date we are otherwise required to deliver the consideration due upon such conversion is before the first date on which the amount of such adjustment can be determined, then we will, solely to the extent necessary, be permitted to delay delivering such consideration until no later than the second business day immediately after such first date on which the amount of such adjustment can be determined.

In addition, notwithstanding the foregoing, in respect of any physical settlement or combination settlement of any conversion, if any adjustment to the conversion rate described in clauses (1) through (5) above becomes effective on any ex-dividend date and a holder that has converted its notes would:

 

    receive shares of our common stock based on the conversion rate as so adjusted in respect of such conversion (in the case of physical settlement) or in respect of any trading day in the relevant observation period (in the case of combination settlement); and

 

    be a record holder of such shares of our common stock on the record date for the dividend, distribution or other event giving rise to the adjustment,

then, in lieu of receiving shares of our common stock at such adjusted conversion rate, such holder shall receive a number of shares of our common stock based on the unadjusted conversion rate in respect of such conversion (in the case of physical settlement) or such trading day (in the case of combination settlement) and will participate, as a record holder of such shares, in the related dividend, distribution or other event giving rise to the adjustment.

Except as stated herein, we will not adjust the conversion rate for the issuance of shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock or the right to purchase shares of our common stock or such convertible or exchangeable securities. If, however, the application of the foregoing formulas would result in a decrease in the conversion rate, no adjustment to the conversion rate will be made (other than as a result of a stock combination pursuant to clause (1) above or the reversal of an increase to the conversion rate where the relevant event did not occur, as expressly specified in the indenture).

As used in this section, “ex-dividend date” means the first date on which the shares of our common stock trade on the applicable exchange or in the applicable market, regular way, without the right to receive the issuance, dividend or distribution in question, from us or, if applicable, from the seller of our common stock on such exchange or market (in the form of due bills or otherwise) as determined by such exchange or market, and “effective date” means, with respect to a stock split or stock combination, the first date on which the shares of our common stock trade on the applicable exchange or in the applicable market, regular way, reflecting such stock split or stock combination, as applicable. For the avoidance of doubt, any alternative trading convention on the applicable exchange or market in respect of our common stock under a separate ticker symbol or CUSIP number will not be considered “regular way” for these purposes.

Subject to the applicable listing standards of The New York Stock Exchange, we are permitted to increase the conversion rate of the notes by any amount for a period of at least 20 business days if our board of directors or a committee thereof determines that such increase would be in our best interest. Subject to the applicable listing standards of The New York Stock Exchange, we may also (but are not required to) increase the conversion rate to avoid or diminish income tax to holders of our common stock or rights to purchase shares of our common stock in connection with a dividend or distribution of shares (or rights to acquire shares) or similar event.

A holder may, in some circumstances, including a distribution of cash dividends to holders of our shares of common stock, be deemed to have received a distribution subject to U.S. federal income tax as a result of an adjustment or the non-occurrence of an adjustment to the conversion rate. Because a deemed distribution would not give rise to any cash from which any applicable withholding could be satisfied, if we pay withholding taxes on behalf of a holder we may, at our option, set off any such payment against payments of cash and common stock payable on the notes (or, in some circumstances, against any payments on the common stock). For a

 

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discussion of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an adjustment to the conversion rate, see “Additional U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

Notwithstanding any of the foregoing, the conversion rate will not be adjusted:

 

    upon the issuance of any shares of our common stock pursuant to any present or future plan providing for the reinvestment of dividends or interest payable on our securities and the investment of additional optional amounts in shares of our common stock under any plan;

 

    upon the issuance of any shares of our common stock or options or rights to purchase those shares pursuant to any present or future employee, director or consultant benefit plan or program of or assumed by us or any of our subsidiaries;

 

    upon the issuance of any shares of our common stock pursuant to any option, warrant, right or exercisable, exchangeable or convertible security not described in the preceding bullet and outstanding as of the date the initial notes were first issued;

 

    upon the repurchase of any shares of our common stock pursuant to an open-market share repurchase program or other buy-back transaction that is not a tender offer or exchange offer of the nature described under clause (5) above;

 

    solely for a change in the par value of our common stock; or

 

    for accrued and unpaid interest, if any.

Adjustments to the conversion rate will be calculated to the nearest 1/10,000th of a share.

We will not adjust the conversion rate pursuant to the clauses above unless the adjustment would result in a change of at least 1% in the then- effective conversion rate. However, we will carry forward any adjustment that we would otherwise have to make and take that adjustment into account in any subsequent adjustment. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all such carried-forward adjustments shall be made with respect to the notes (i) annually on March 1 of each year, (ii) in connection with any subsequent adjustment to the conversion rate that, together with all carried- forward adjustments, would constitute a change of at least 1% in the then-effective conversion rate, (iii) if we have called any notes or initial notes for redemption, and (iv) (x) on the conversion date for any notes (in the case of physical settlement) or (y) on each trading day of any observation period (in the case of cash settlement or combination settlement). We refer to our ability to defer adjustments as described above as the “deferral exception.”

Stockholder rights plans

We currently do not have a stockholder rights plan. If we have a rights plan in effect upon conversion of the notes, you will also receive, to the extent, if at all, you receive any shares of common stock upon such conversion, rights under the rights plan. However, if, prior to any conversion, the rights have separated from the shares of common stock in accordance with the provisions of the applicable rights plan, the conversion rate will be adjusted at the time of separation as if we distributed to all or substantially all holders of our common stock, shares of our capital stock, evidences of indebtedness, other assets or property or rights, options or warrants as described in clause (3) above under the caption “—Conversion Rate Adjustments,” subject to readjustment in the event of the expiration, termination or redemption of such rights.

Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of Our Common Stock

In the case of:

 

    any recapitalization, reclassification or change of our common stock (other than a change only in par value, from par value to no par value or from no par value to par value, or changes resulting from a subdivision or combination of our common stock);

 

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    any consolidation or merger involving us;

 

    any sale, lease or other transfer to a third party of all or substantially all of the consolidated assets of us and our subsidiaries, taken as a whole; or

 

    any statutory share exchange,

in each case, as a result of which our common stock would be converted into, or exchanged for, or represent solely the right to receive, stock, other securities, other property or assets (including cash or any combination thereof) (such an event, a “common stock change event,” and such stock, other securities, other property or assets, the “reference property,” and the amount and kind of reference property that a holder of one share of our common stock would be entitled to receive on account of such common stock change event, a “reference property unit”), then, notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, at the effective time of such common stock change event, (i) the consideration due upon conversion of any notes or initial notes will be determined in the same manner as if each reference to any number of shares of our common stock in this section titled “—Conversion Rights” were instead a reference to the same number of reference property units, (ii) for purposes of the definition of “ex-dividend date,” the term “common stock” will be deemed to refer to any class of securities forming part of such reference property, and (iii) for purposes of the definition of “fundamental change” and “make-whole fundamental change,” the terms “common stock” and “common equity” will be deemed to mean the common equity, if any, forming part of such reference property. For these purposes, the daily VWAP or last reported sale price of any reference property unit or portion thereof that does not consist of a class of securities will be the fair value of such reference property unit or portion thereof, as applicable, determined in good faith by us (or, in the case of cash denominated in U.S. dollars, the face amount thereof).

If the common stock change event causes our common stock to be converted into, or exchanged for, the right to receive more than a single type of consideration (determined based in part upon any form of stockholder election), the composition of the reference property unit will be deemed to be (i) the weighted average, per share of our common stock, of the types and amounts of consideration received by the holders of our common stock that affirmatively make such an election or (ii) if no holders of our common stock affirmatively make such an election, the types and amounts of consideration actually received, per share of our common stock, by the holders of our common stock. If the holders receive only cash in such common stock change event, then for all conversions that occur after the effective date of such common stock change event (i) the consideration due upon conversion of each $1,000 principal amount of notes shall, for the avoidance of doubt, be solely cash in an amount equal to the conversion rate in effect on the conversion date (as may be increased as described under “—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change”), multiplied by the price paid per share of common stock in such common stock change event and (ii) we will satisfy our conversion obligation by paying cash to converting holders on the second business day immediately following the conversion date. We will notify holders, the trustee and the conversion agent (if other than the trustee) of the weighted average as soon as practicable after such determination is made. We have agreed in the indenture not to become a party to any such common stock change event unless its terms are consistent with the foregoing.

Adjustments of Prices

Whenever any provision of the indenture requires us to calculate the last reported sale prices, the daily VWAPs, the daily conversion values or the daily settlement amounts over a span of multiple days (including an observation period and the “stock price” for purposes of a make-whole fundamental change), our board of directors or a committee thereof will make appropriate adjustments to each to account for any adjustment to the conversion rate that becomes effective, or any event requiring an adjustment to the conversion rate where the ex-dividend date of the event occurs, at any time during the period when such last reported sale prices, daily VWAPs, daily conversion values or daily settlement amounts are to be calculated.

 

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Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change

If the “effective date” (as defined below) of a “make-whole fundamental change” (as defined below) occurs prior to the maturity date of the notes and a holder elects to convert its notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change, we will, under certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for the notes so surrendered for conversion by a number of additional shares of common stock (the “additional shares”), as described below. A “make-whole fundamental change” means any transaction or event that constitutes a fundamental change defined below in “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes,” after giving effect to any exceptions or exclusions from such definition, but without regard to subclause (a) of the proviso in clause (2) of the definition thereof. A conversion of notes will be deemed for these purposes to be “in connection with” such make-whole fundamental change if the relevant notice of conversion of the notes is received by the conversion agent from, and including, the effective date of the make-whole fundamental change up to, and including, the business day immediately prior to the related fundamental change repurchase date (or, in the case of a make-whole fundamental change that would have been a fundamental change but for subclause (a) of the proviso in clause (2) of the definition thereof, the 35th trading day immediately following the effective date of such make-whole fundamental change). Upon surrender of notes for conversion in connection with a make-whole fundamental change, we will, at our option, satisfy our conversion obligation by physical settlement, cash settlement or combination settlement, based on the conversion rate as increased to reflect the additional shares pursuant to the table set forth below, as described under “—Settlement Upon Conversion.” However, if the consideration for our common stock in any make-whole fundamental change described in clause (2) of the definition of fundamental change is composed entirely of cash, for any conversion of notes following the effective date of such make-whole fundamental change, the conversion obligation will be calculated based solely on the “stock price” (as defined below) for the transaction and will be deemed to be an amount of cash per $1,000 principal amount of converted notes equal to the conversion rate (including any increase to reflect the additional shares as described in this section), multiplied by such stock price. In such event, the conversion obligation will be determined and paid to holders in cash on the second business day following the conversion date. We will notify holders of the effective date of any make-whole fundamental change no later than five business days after such effective date.

The number of additional shares, if any, by which the conversion rate will be increased will be determined by reference to the table below, based on the date on which the make-whole fundamental change occurs or becomes effective (the “effective date”) and the price (the “stock price”) paid (or deemed to be paid) per share of our common stock in the make-whole fundamental change. If the holders of our common stock receive in exchange for their common stock only cash in a make-whole fundamental change described in clause (2) of the definition of fundamental change, the stock price will be the cash amount paid per share. Otherwise, the stock price will be the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock over the five trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the effective date of the make-whole fundamental change.

The stock prices set forth in the column headings of the table below will be adjusted as of any date on which the conversion rate of the notes is otherwise adjusted. The adjusted stock prices will equal the stock prices immediately prior to such adjustment, multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the conversion rate immediately prior to the adjustment giving rise to the stock price adjustment and the denominator of which is the conversion rate as so adjusted. The number of additional shares as set forth in the table below will be adjusted in the same manner and at the same time as the conversion rate as set forth under “—Conversion Rate Adjustments.”

 

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The following table sets forth the number of additional shares by which the conversion rate will be increased per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each stock price and effective date set forth below:

 

Effective Date

  Stock Price  
  $ 18.10     $ 18.40     $ 18.70     $ 19.00     $ 19.30     $ 19.60     $ 19.91     $ 20.20     $ 20.50     $ 20.80     $ 21.10  

August 21, 2017

    5.0226       4.2908       3.6016       2.9574       2.3606       1.8138       1.3054       0.8866       0.5185       0.2293       0.0403  

August 23, 2018

    5.0226       4.2016       3.4947       2.8353       2.2269       1.6740       1.1662       0.7559       0.4059       0.1462       0.0000  

August 23, 2019

    5.0226       4.0864       3.3620       2.6884       2.0710       1.5143       1.0100       0.6119       0.2873       0.0721       0.0000  

August 23, 2020

    5.0226       3.9446       3.2000       2.5121       1.8870       1.3311       0.8373       0.4589       0.1678       0.0014       0.0000  

August 23, 2021

    5.0226       3.6891       2.9091       2.1989       1.5684       1.0265       0.5701       0.2515       0.0478       0.0000       0.0000  

August 23, 2022

    5.0226       4.1218       3.2499       2.4056       1.5875       0.7944       0.0000       0.0000       0.0000       0.0000       0.0000  

The exact stock prices and effective dates may not be set forth in the table above, in which case:

 

    if the stock price is between two stock prices in the table or the effective date is between two effective dates in the table, the number of additional shares by which the conversion rate will be increased will be determined by a straight-line interpolation between the number of additional shares set forth for the higher and lower stock prices and the earlier and later effective dates, as applicable, based on a 365- or 366-day year, as applicable;

 

    if the stock price is greater than $21.10 per share (subject to adjustment in the same manner as the stock prices set forth in the column headings of the table above), no additional shares will be added to the conversion rate; and

 

    if the stock price is less than $18.10 per share (subject to adjustment in the same manner as the stock prices set forth in the column headings of the table above), no additional shares will be added to the conversion rate;

Notwithstanding the foregoing, in no event will the conversion rate be increased pursuant to the provisions described above to exceed 55.2486 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes, subject to adjustment in the same manner as the conversion rate as set forth under “—Conversion Rate Adjustments.”

Our obligation to increase the conversion rate for notes converted in connection with a make-whole fundamental change could be considered a penalty, in which case the enforceability thereof would be subject to general principles of reasonableness and equitable remedies.

Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes

If a “fundamental change” (as defined below in this section) occurs at any time prior to the maturity date, holders will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase for cash all of their notes, or any portion of the principal amount thereof that is equal to $1,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000. The fundamental change repurchase date will be a date specified by us that is not less than 20 or more than 35 calendar days following the date of our fundamental change notice as described below or, if we fail to specify a fundamental change repurchase date, the 35th calendar day following the date of our fundamental change notice.

The fundamental change repurchase price we are required to pay will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date (unless the fundamental change repurchase date falls after a regular record date but on or prior to the interest payment date to which such regular record date relates, in which case we will instead pay, on or, at our election, before such interest payment date, the full amount of accrued and unpaid interest to the holder of record on such regular record date, and the fundamental change repurchase price will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased).

 

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A “fundamental change” will be deemed to have occurred at the time after the initial notes were originally issued if any of the following occurs:

 

  (1) a “person” or “group” within the meaning of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act, other than us, our subsidiaries and our or their employee benefit plans, files a Schedule TO or any schedule, form or report under the Exchange Act disclosing that such person or group has become the direct or indirect “beneficial owner,” as defined in Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act, of our common equity representing more than 50% of the voting power of our common equity;

 

  (2) the consummation of (A) any recapitalization, reclassification or change of our common stock (other than a change only in par value, from par value to no par value or from no par value to par value, or changes resulting from a subdivision or combination of our common stock) as a result of which our common stock would be converted into, or exchanged for, or represent solely the right to receive, stock, other securities, other property or assets; (B) any statutory share exchange, consolidation or merger of us pursuant to which our common stock will be converted into, or exchanged for, or represent solely the right to receive, stock, other securities, other property or assets; or (C) any sale, lease or other transfer in one transaction or a series of transactions of all or substantially all of the consolidated assets of us and our subsidiaries, taken as a whole, to any person other than one of our wholly owned subsidiaries; provided, however, that neither (a) a transaction described in clause (A) or (B) in which the holders of all classes of our common equity immediately prior to such transaction “beneficially own,” directly or indirectly, more than 50% of all classes of common equity of the continuing or surviving entity or the parent thereof immediately after such transaction in substantially the same proportions as such ownership immediately prior to such transaction nor (b) any merger of us solely for the purpose of changing our jurisdiction of incorporation that results in a reclassification, conversion or exchange of outstanding shares of our common stock solely into shares of common stock of the surviving entity shall be a fundamental change pursuant to this clause (2);

 

  (3) our stockholders approve any plan or proposal for the liquidation or dissolution of us; or

 

  (4) our common stock ceases to be listed or quoted on any of The New York Stock Exchange, The NASDAQ Global Select Market or The NASDAQ Global Market (or any of their respective successors).

A transaction or transactions described in clause (1) or (2) above will not constitute a fundamental change, however, if at least 90% of the consideration received or to be received by our common stockholders (excluding cash payments for fractional shares or pursuant to dissenters’ appraisal rights) in connection with such transaction or transactions consists of shares of common stock or common equity interests that are listed or quoted on any of The New York Stock Exchange, The NASDAQ Global Select Market or The NASDAQ Global Market (or any of their respective successors), or will be so listed or quoted when issued or exchanged in connection with such transaction or transactions, and as a result of such transaction or transactions the notes become convertible (assuming physical settlement) into such consideration, excluding cash payments for fractional shares (subject to the provisions set forth above under “—Conversion Rights—Settlement Upon Conversion”).

For the purposes of this definition of “fundamental change,” any transaction or event that constitutes a fundamental change under both clause (1) and clause (2) above will be deemed to constitute a fundamental change solely under clause (2) of this definition of “fundamental change.”

On or before the 10th calendar day after the occurrence of a fundamental change, we will provide to all holders of the notes, the conversion agent, the trustee and the paying agent a written notice of the occurrence of the fundamental change and of the resulting repurchase right. Such notice shall state, among other things:

 

    the events causing a fundamental change;

 

    the effective date of the fundamental change;

 

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    the last date on which a holder may exercise the repurchase right;

 

    the fundamental change repurchase price;

 

    the fundamental change repurchase date;

 

    the name and address of the paying agent and the conversion agent;

 

    the conversion rate and, if applicable, any adjustments to the conversion rate resulting from such fundamental change;

 

    that the notes with respect to which a fundamental change repurchase notice has been delivered by a holder may be converted only if the holder withdraws the fundamental change repurchase notice in accordance with the terms of the indenture; and

 

    the procedures that holders must follow to require us to repurchase their notes.

To exercise the fundamental change repurchase right, you must deliver, on or before the business day immediately preceding the fundamental change repurchase date, the notes to be repurchased, duly endorsed for transfer, together with a written repurchase notice, to the paying agent. Each repurchase notice must state:

 

    if certificated, the certificate numbers of your notes to be delivered for repurchase;

 

    the portion of the principal amount of notes to be repurchased, which must be $1,000 or an integral multiple thereof; and

 

    that the notes are to be repurchased by us pursuant to the applicable provisions of the notes and the indenture.

If the notes are not in certificated form, such repurchase notice must comply with appropriate DTC procedures.

Holders may withdraw any repurchase notice (in whole or in part) by a written notice of withdrawal delivered to the paying agent prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding the fundamental change repurchase date. The notice of withdrawal shall state:

 

    the principal amount of the withdrawn notes, which must be $1,000 aggregate principal amount or an integral multiple thereof;

 

    if certificated notes have been issued, the certificate numbers of the withdrawn notes; and

 

    the principal amount, if any, which remains subject to the repurchase notice, which must be $1,000 aggregate principal amount or an integral multiple thereof.

If the notes are not in certificated form, such notice of withdrawal must comply with appropriate DTC procedures.

We will be required to repurchase the notes on the fundamental change repurchase date. Holders who have exercised the repurchase right will receive payment of the fundamental change repurchase price on the later of (i) the fundamental change repurchase date and (ii) the time of book- entry transfer or the delivery of the notes. If the paying agent holds money sufficient to pay the fundamental change repurchase price of the notes on the fundamental change repurchase date, then, with respect to the notes that have been properly surrendered for repurchase and have not been validly withdrawn:

 

    the notes will cease to be outstanding and interest will cease to accrue (whether or not book-entry transfer of the notes is made or whether or not the notes are delivered to the paying agent); and

 

    all other rights of the holder will terminate (other than the right to receive the fundamental change repurchase price).

 

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In connection with any repurchase offer pursuant to a fundamental change repurchase notice, we will, if required:

 

    comply with the provisions of Rule 13e-4, Rule 14e-1 and any other tender offer rules under the Exchange Act that may then be applicable;

 

    file a Schedule TO or any other required schedule under the Exchange Act; and

 

    otherwise comply with all federal and state securities laws in connection with any offer by us to repurchase the notes,

in each case, so as to permit the rights and obligations as described under this “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes” to be exercised in the time and in the manner specified in the indenture.

No notes or initial notes may be repurchased by us on any date at the option of holders upon a fundamental change if the principal amount of the notes and initial notes has been accelerated, and such acceleration has not been rescinded, on or prior to such date (except in the case of an acceleration resulting from a default by us in the payment of the fundamental change repurchase price with respect to such notes).

The repurchase rights of the holders could discourage a potential acquirer of us. The fundamental change repurchase feature, however, is not the result of management’s knowledge of any specific effort to obtain control of us by any means or part of a plan by management to adopt a series of anti-takeover provisions.

We will not be required to make an offer to purchase the notes or initial notes upon a fundamental change if a third party makes such an offer in the manner, at the times and otherwise in compliance with the requirements therefor in the indenture and such third party purchases all notes and initial notes properly tendered and not validly withdrawn under its offer in the same manner as we would have been required to pursuant to the indenture.

To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with the provisions of the indenture relating to our obligations to purchase the notes or initial notes upon a fundamental change, we will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and will not be deemed to have breached our obligations under such provisions of the indenture by virtue of such conflict.

The term fundamental change is limited to specified transactions and may not include other events that might adversely affect our financial condition. In addition, the requirement that we offer to repurchase the notes upon a fundamental change may not protect holders in the event of a highly leveraged transaction, reorganization, merger or similar transaction involving us. Furthermore, holders may not be entitled to require us to repurchase their notes upon a fundamental change or entitled to an increase in the conversion rate upon conversion as described under “Conversion Rights—Increase in Conversion Rate Upon Conversion Upon a Make-whole Fundamental Change” in circumstances involving a significant change in the composition of our board, unless such change is in connection with a fundamental change or make-whole fundamental change as described herein.

The definition of fundamental change includes a phrase relating to the sale, lease or other transfer of “all or substantially all” of the consolidated assets of us and our subsidiaries, taken as a whole. There is no precise, established definition of the phrase “substantially all” under applicable law. Accordingly, the ability of a holder of the notes to require us to repurchase its notes as a result of the sale, conveyance, lease or other transfer of less than all of our assets may be uncertain.

If a fundamental change were to occur, we may not have enough funds to pay the fundamental change repurchase price. Our ability to repurchase the notes for cash may be limited by restrictions on our ability to

 

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obtain funds for such repurchase through dividends from our subsidiaries, the terms of our then existing borrowing arrangements or otherwise. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Notes and this Offering—We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the notes in cash or to repurchase the notes for cash upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to repurchase the notes.” If we fail to repurchase the notes or initial notes when required following a fundamental change, we will be in default under the indenture. In addition, we may in the future incur other indebtedness with similar change-in-control provisions permitting our holders to accelerate or to require us to repurchase our indebtedness upon the occurrence of similar events or on some specific dates.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Stock; Limitation on Stock Issuable Upon Conversion

To assist us in complying with the limitations on the concentration of ownership of a REIT imposed by the Internal Revenue Code, among other purposes, our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. Our charter generally prohibits, among other prohibitions, any stockholder from beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes or series of our capital stock (the “ownership limit”). Our board of directors has established exemptions from the ownership limit that permit Apollo and certain of its affiliates collectively to hold up to 25% of our common stock and certain institutional investors, each together with certain of their specified affiliates, each collectively to hold up to 15% of our common stock. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus. The indenture provides that, notwithstanding any other provision of the indenture or the notes, no holder of the notes will be entitled to receive shares of our common stock upon conversion to the extent (but only to the extent) that such receipt would cause a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter. Any purported delivery of shares of our common stock upon conversion of notes will be void and have no effect to the extent (but only to the extent) that such delivery would result in a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter. If any delivery of shares of our common stock owed to a holder upon conversion of notes is not made, in whole or in part, as a result of the ownership limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our obligation to make such delivery will not be extinguished, and we will deliver such shares as promptly as practicable after the applicable holder gives notice to us that such delivery would not result in a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

The provisions described below apply to the notes in lieu of the provisions described in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Description of Debt Securities—Mergers and Other Transactions.” The provisions described below apply only to the notes and the initial notes and not to any other series of debt securities issued pursuant to the base indenture.

The indenture provides that we shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or sell, convey, transfer or lease of all or substantially all of the consolidated assets of us and our subsidiaries, taken as a whole, to, another person, unless (i) the resulting, surviving or transferee person (if not us) is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, and such corporation (if not us) expressly assumes by supplemental indenture all of our obligations under the notes and the indenture; (ii) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no default or event of default has occurred and is continuing under the indenture and (iii) we have delivered an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel to the trustee providing that such merger, consolidation, sale, conveyance, transfer or lease and supplemental indenture (if any) comply with the indenture and an opinion of counsel stating that the notes and the indenture are valid and binding obligations of such surviving or transferee person. Upon any such consolidation, merger or sale, conveyance, transfer or lease, the resulting, surviving or transferee person (if not us) shall succeed to, and may exercise, every right and power of ours under the indenture, and we shall be discharged from our obligations under the notes and the indenture, except in the case of any such lease.

 

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Although these types of transactions are permitted under the indenture, certain of the foregoing transactions could constitute a fundamental change permitting each holder to require us to repurchase the notes of such holder as described above.

Events of Default

The provisions described below apply to the notes in lieu of the provisions described in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Description of Debt Securities—Events of Default and Remedies.” The provisions described below apply only to the notes and not to any other series of debt securities issued pursuant to the base indenture.

Each of the following is an event of default with respect to the notes:

 

  (1) default in any payment of interest on any note when due and payable and the default continues for a period of 30 calendar days;

 

  (2) default in the payment of principal of any note when due and payable at its stated maturity, upon any redemption or required repurchase, upon declaration of acceleration or otherwise;

 

  (3) our failure to comply with our obligation to convert the notes in accordance with the indenture upon exercise of a holder’s conversion right and such failure continues for a period of five business days;

 

  (4) our failure to give a fundamental change notice as described under “—Fundamental Change Permits Holders to Require Us to Repurchase Notes” when due;

 

  (5) our failure to comply with our obligations under “—Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

  (6) our failure for 60 calendar days after written notice from the trustee to us, or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the notes and initial notes then outstanding, has been received to comply with any of our other agreements contained in the notes or indenture;

 

  (7) default by us or any of our subsidiaries with respect to any mortgage, agreement or other instrument under which there is outstanding, or by which there is secured or evidenced, any indebtedness for money borrowed (other than non-recourse debt of a subsidiary) in excess of $25.0 million (or its foreign currency equivalent) in the aggregate, whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created (i) resulting in such indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable or (ii) constituting a failure to pay the principal or interest of any such debt when due and payable at its stated maturity, upon required repurchase, upon declaration of acceleration or otherwise, and such acceleration shall not have been rescinded or annulled or such failure to pay shall not have been cured, as the case may be, within 30 calendar days after written notice to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the notes and initial notes then outstanding;

 

  (8) a final judgment for the payment of $25.0 million (or its foreign currency equivalent) or more (excluding any amounts covered by insurance) rendered against us or any of our subsidiaries, which judgment is not discharged or stayed within 60 days after (i) the date on which the right to appeal thereof has expired if no such appeal has commenced, or (ii) the date on which all rights to appeal have been extinguished; and

 

  (9) certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries (as defined in Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X under the Exchange Act).

If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee by notice to us, or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes and initial notes by written notice to us and the trustee, may, and the trustee at the written request of such holders shall, declare 100% of the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the notes to be due and payable. Upon such a declaration of acceleration, such principal and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will be due and payable immediately. However, in case of certain events of

 

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bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, involving us (and not solely with respect to one or more of our significant subsidiaries), 100% of the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on the notes will automatically become due and payable.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the indenture provides that, to the extent we elect, the sole remedy for an event of default relating to our failure to comply with our obligations as set forth under “—Reports” below, or to any failure to comply with the requirements of Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act (such obligations and requirements being referred to as our “reporting obligations”), will, for the first 180 calendar days after the occurrence of such an event of default, consist exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the notes at a rate equal to 0.25% per annum of the principal amount of the notes outstanding for each day during the first 90 calendar days after the occurrence of such an event of default and at a rate equal to 0.50% per annum of the principal amount of the notes outstanding from the 91st calendar day through, and including, the 180th calendar day following the occurrence of such an event of default during which such event of default is continuing.

If we so elect, such additional interest will be payable in the same manner and on the same dates as the stated interest payable on the notes. On the 181st calendar day after such event of default (if the event of default relating to such reporting obligations or is not cured or waived prior to such 181st calendar day), the notes will be subject to acceleration as provided above (and, for the avoidance of doubt, additional interest will cease to accrue). The provisions of the indenture described in this paragraph will not affect the rights of holders of notes in the event of the occurrence of any other event of default. In the event we do not elect to pay the additional interest following an event of default in accordance with this paragraph or we elected to make such payment but do not pay the additional interest when due, the notes will be immediately subject to acceleration as provided above.

In order to elect to pay the additional interest as the sole remedy during the first 180 calendar days after the occurrence of an event of default relating to the failure to comply with such reporting obligations in accordance with the immediately preceding paragraph, we must notify all holders of the notes, the trustee and the paying agent of such election prior to the beginning of such 180-day period. Upon our failure to timely give such notice, the notes will be immediately subject to acceleration as provided above.

If any portion of the amount payable on the notes upon acceleration is considered by a court to be unearned interest (through the allocation of the value of the instrument to the embedded warrant or otherwise), the court could disallow recovery of any such portion.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes and initial notes may waive all past defaults (except with respect to non-payment of principal or interest or with respect to the failure to deliver the consideration due upon conversion or any other provision of the indenture that requires the consent of each affected holder to amend) and rescind any such acceleration with respect to the notes and its consequences if (i) rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction and (ii) all existing events of default, other than the non-payment of the principal of and interest on the notes that have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived.

Each holder shall have the right to receive payment or delivery, as the case may be, of:

 

    the principal (including the fundamental change repurchase price and redemption price, if applicable) of;

 

    accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on; and

 

    the consideration due upon conversion of,

its notes, on or after the respective due dates expressed or provided for in the indenture, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment or delivery, as the case may be, and such right to receive such payment or delivery, as the case may be, on or after such respective dates shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder.

 

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Subject to the provisions of the indenture relating to the duties of the trustee, if an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders unless such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. Except to enforce the right to receive payment of principal or interest when due, or the right to receive payment or delivery of the consideration due upon conversion, no holder may pursue from the trustee any remedy with respect to the indenture or the notes unless:

 

  (1) such holder has previously given the trustee written notice that an event of default is continuing;

 

  (2) holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes and initial notes have made a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy;

 

  (3) such holders have offered the trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense;

 

  (4) the trustee has not complied with such request within 60 calendar days after the receipt of the request and the offer of security or indemnity; and

 

  (5) the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes and initial notes have not given the trustee a direction that, in the opinion of the trustee, is inconsistent with such request within such 60-day period.

Subject to certain restrictions, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes and initial notes are given the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or of exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee.

The indenture provides that in the event an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will be required in the exercise of its powers vested in it by the indenture to use the degree of care that a prudent person would use in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the indenture or that the trustee determines is unduly prejudicial to the rights of any other holder or that would involve the trustee in personal liability. Prior to taking any action under the indenture, the trustee will be entitled to indemnification reasonably satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense caused by taking or not taking such action.

The indenture provides that if a default occurs and is continuing and is actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee must send to each holder notice of the default within 90 calendar days after it receives notice thereof. Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal of or interest on any note or a default in the payment or delivery of the consideration due upon conversion, the trustee may withhold notice if and so long as it in good faith determines that withholding notice is in the interests of the holders. In addition, we are required to deliver to the trustee, within 120 calendar days after the end of each fiscal year, a certificate indicating whether the signers thereof know of any default that occurred during the previous year. We are also required to deliver to the trustee, within 30 calendar days after the occurrence thereof, written notice of any events which would constitute certain defaults, their status and what action we are taking or proposing to take in respect thereof.

Payments of the redemption price, fundamental change repurchase price, principal and interest that are not made when due will accrue interest per annum at the then-applicable interest rate from the required payment date.

Modification and Amendment

The provisions described below apply to the notes in lieu of the provisions described in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Description of Debt Securities—Modification of the Indenture.” The provisions described below apply only to the notes and not to any other series of debt securities issued pursuant to the base indenture.

 

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Subject to certain exceptions, the indenture or the notes may be amended with the consent of the holders of at least a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the notes and initial notes then outstanding (including without limitation, consents obtained in connection with a repurchase of, or tender or exchange offer for, notes) and, subject to certain exceptions, any past default or compliance with any provisions of the indenture or the notes may be waived with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the notes and initial notes then outstanding (including, without limitation, consents obtained in connection with a repurchase of, or tender or exchange offer for, notes). However, without the consent of each holder of an outstanding note affected, no amendment may, among other things:

 

  (1) reduce the amount of notes whose holders must consent to an amendment or waiver;

 

  (2) reduce the rate of or extend the stated time for payment of interest on any note;

 

  (3) reduce the principal of or extend the stated maturity of any note;

 

  (4) make any change that adversely affects the conversion rights of any notes;

 

  (5) reduce the redemption price or fundamental change repurchase price of any note or amend or modify in any manner adverse to the holders of notes our right to redeem the notes or our obligation to offer to repurchase and repurchase the notes, whether through an amendment or waiver of provisions in the covenants, definitions or otherwise;

 

  (6) make any note payable in money, or at a place of payment, other than that stated in the note;

 

  (7) change the ranking of the notes;

 

  (8) impair the right of any holder to receive payment of principal and interest on such holder’s notes on or after the due dates therefor or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to such holder’s notes; or

 

  (9) make any change in the amendment provisions of the indenture or the notes that require each holder’s consent or in the waiver provisions if such change adversely affects the rights of holders of the notes.

Without the consent of any holder, we and the trustee may supplement or amend the indenture or the notes to:

 

  (1) cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency that does not adversely affect any holder of the notes, or to eliminate any conflict with the terms of the Trust Indenture Act;

 

  (2) provide for the assumption by a successor corporation of our obligations under the indenture and the notes pursuant to the provisions of the indenture relating to consolidations, mergers and sales of assets;

 

  (3) add guarantees with respect to the notes;

 

  (4) secure the notes;

 

  (5) add to our covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders or surrender any right or power conferred upon us;

 

  (6) make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder;

 

  (7) increase the conversion rate as provided in the indenture;

 

  (8) provide for the issuance of additional notes solely in accordance with the limitations set forth in the indenture;

 

  (9) comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

  (10) provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;

 

  (11)

irrevocably elect or eliminate a settlement method or a specified dollar amount; provided, however, that no such election or elimination will affect any settlement method theretofore elected (or deemed to

 

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  be elected) with respect to any note pursuant to the provisions described above under the caption “—Conversion Rights—Settlement Upon Conversion”;

 

  (12) comply with the applicable procedures of the depository;

 

  (13) enter into supplemental indentures to give effect to, and in compliance with, the provisions described above under the caption “—Conversion Rights—Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of Our Common Stock”; or

 

  (14) conform the provisions of the indenture to any provision of the “Description of Notes” section of the preliminary prospectus supplement, dated August 15, 2017, as supplemented by the pricing term sheet, dated August 15, 2017, relating to the offering and sale of the initial notes, as evidenced by an officers’ certificate.

Holders do not need to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment. It will be sufficient if such holders approve the substance of the proposed amendment. After an amendment under the indenture becomes effective, we are required to mail to the holders a notice briefly describing such amendment. However, the failure to give such notice to all the holders, or any defect in the notice, will not impair or affect the validity of the amendment.

Discharge

We may satisfy and discharge our obligations under the indenture by delivering to the securities registrar for cancellation all outstanding notes and initial notes or by depositing with the trustee or delivering to the holders, as applicable, after the notes and initial notes have become due and payable, whether at maturity, any redemption date or fundamental change repurchase date, upon conversion or otherwise, cash (or, solely to satisfy outstanding conversions, cash and/or shares of common stock, as applicable) sufficient to pay all of the outstanding notes and initial notes and paying all other sums payable under the indenture by us. Such discharge is subject to terms contained in the indenture.

Calculations in Respect of Notes

We will be responsible for making all calculations called for under the notes. These calculations include, but are not limited to, determinations of the last reported sale prices of our common stock, the daily VWAPs, the daily conversion values, the daily settlement amounts, accrued interest payable on the notes and the conversion rate of the notes. We will make all these calculations in good faith and, absent manifest error, our calculations will be final and binding on holders of notes. We will provide a schedule of our calculations to each of the trustee and the conversion agent, and each of the trustee and the conversion agent is entitled to rely conclusively upon the accuracy of our calculations without independent verification. The trustee will forward our calculations to any holder of notes upon the written request of that holder.

Reports

The indenture provides that any documents or reports that we are required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any such information, documents or reports or portions thereof, subject to confidential treatment and any correspondence with the SEC) must be filed by us with the trustee within 15 calendar days after the date the same are required to be filed with the SEC (after giving effect to any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act). Documents filed by us with the SEC via the EDGAR system (or any successor thereto) will be deemed to be filed with the trustee as of the time such documents are filed via EDGAR, it being understood that the trustee shall not be responsible for determining whether such filings have been made.

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the trustee is for informational purposes only, and the trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or

 

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determinable from information contained therein, including our compliance with any of our covenants under the indenture (as to which the trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on officers’ certificates).

Trustee

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, is the trustee, security registrar, paying agent and conversion agent. Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, in each of its capacities, including without limitation as trustee, security registrar, paying agent and conversion agent, assumes no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information concerning us or our affiliates or any other party contained in this document or the related documents or for any failure by us or any other party to disclose events that may have occurred and may affect the significance or accuracy of such information.

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, and/or its affiliates has engaged in, and may in the future engage in, banking and other commercial dealings with us in the ordinary course of business. It receives customary fees and commissions for these services.

Governing Law

The indenture provides that it and the notes, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the indenture or the notes, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The indenture further provides that we and the trustee waive any right to a trial by jury in any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the indenture, the notes or the transactions contemplated thereby, to the fullest extent permitted by law.

Book-Entry, Settlement and Clearance

The Global Notes

The notes will be initially issued in the form of one or more registered notes in global form, without interest coupons (the “global notes”). Upon issuance, each of the global notes will be deposited with the trustee as custodian for DTC and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global note will be limited to persons who have accounts with DTC (“DTC participants”) or persons who hold interests through DTC participants. We expect that under procedures established by DTC:

 

    upon deposit of a global note with DTC’s custodian, DTC will credit portions of the principal amount of the global note to the accounts of the DTC participants designated by the underwriters; and

 

    ownership of beneficial interests in a global note will be shown on, and transfer of ownership of those interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to interests of DTC participants) and the records of DTC participants (with respect to other owners of beneficial interests in the global note).

Beneficial interests in global notes may not be exchanged for notes in physical, certificated form except in the limited circumstances described below.

Book-Entry Procedures for the Global Notes

All interests in the global notes will be subject to the operations and procedures of DTC. We provide the following summary of those operations and procedures solely for the convenience of investors. The operations and procedures of DTC are controlled by that settlement system and may be changed at any time. Neither we nor the underwriters are responsible for those operations or procedures.

 

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DTC has advised us that it is:

 

    a limited purpose trust company organized under the laws of the State of New York;

 

    a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York State Banking Law;

 

    a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

    a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the Uniform Commercial Code, as adopted by the State of New York; and

 

    a “clearing agency” registered under Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC was created to hold securities for its participants and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between its participants through electronic book-entry changes to the accounts of its participants. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, including the underwriters; banks and trust companies; clearing corporations and other organizations. Indirect access to DTC’s system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies. These indirect participants clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC participant, either directly or indirectly. Investors who are not DTC participants may beneficially own securities held by or on behalf of DTC only through DTC participants or indirect participants in DTC.

So long as DTC’s nominee is the registered owner of a global note, that nominee will be considered the sole owner or holder of the notes represented by that global note for all purposes under the indenture. Except as provided below, owners of beneficial interests in a global note:

 

    will not be entitled to have notes represented by the global note registered in their names;

 

    will not receive or be entitled to receive physical, certificated notes; and

 

    will not be considered the owners or holders of the notes under the indenture for any purpose, including with respect to the giving of any direction, instruction or approval to the trustee under the indenture.

As a result, each investor who owns a beneficial interest in a global note must rely on the procedures of DTC to exercise any rights of a holder of notes under the indenture (and, if the investor is not a participant or an indirect participant in DTC, on the procedures of the DTC participant through which the investor owns its interest).

Payments of principal and interest with respect to the notes represented by a global note will be made by the trustee to DTC’s nominee as the registered holder of the global note. Neither we nor the trustee will have any responsibility or liability for the payment of amounts to owners of beneficial interests in a global note, for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of those interests by DTC, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records of DTC relating to those interests.

Payments by participants and indirect participants in DTC to the owners of beneficial interests in a global note will be governed by standing instructions and customary industry practice and will be the responsibility of those participants or indirect participants and DTC.

Transfers between participants in DTC will be effected under DTC’s procedures and will be settled in same-day funds.

Certificated Notes

Unless we and the applicable beneficial owner of the notes otherwise agree, notes in physical, certificated form will be issued and delivered to each person that DTC identifies as a beneficial owner of the related notes only if:

 

    DTC notifies us at any time that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the global notes and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 calendar days;

 

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    DTC ceases to be registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 calendar days; or

 

    an event of default with respect to the notes has occurred and is continuing and such beneficial owner requests that its notes be issued in physical, certificated form.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Subject to the terms and conditions in the underwriting agreement between us and Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, as the representatives of the underwriters, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the principal amount of the notes set forth below.

 

Underwriter

   Principal amount  

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC

   $ 28,831,000  

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith

                      Incorporated

     20,593,000  

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

     20,593,000  

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

     20,593,000  

Deutsche Bank Securities Inc.

     3,130,000  

JMP Securities LLC

     3,130,000  

Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, Inc.

     3,130,000  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 100,000,000  
  

 

 

 

The underwriters are offering the notes subject to acceptance of the notes from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters to pay for and accept delivery of the notes offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are subject to certain conditions. The underwriters are obligated to take and pay for all of the notes offered by this prospectus supplement if any such notes are taken. However, the underwriters are not required to take or pay for the notes covered by the option to purchase additional notes described below.

The underwriters initially propose to offer the notes directly to the public at the public offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. After the initial offering of the notes, the offering price and other selling terms may from time to time be varied by the underwriters.

The offering of the notes by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part. We have granted the underwriters the option to purchase, within a period of 13 days beginning on, and including, the date the notes are first issued, up to an additional $15,000,000 aggregate principal amount of notes from us. If any additional notes are purchased with this option, the underwriters will severally purchase such additional notes.

The following table shows the public offering price, underwriting discounts and commissions and proceeds, before estimated offering expenses, to us. The information assumes either no exercise or full exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional notes.

 

     Per note     Without option      With option  

Public offering price

     100.5   $ 100,500,000      $ 115,575,000  

Underwriting discounts and commissions

     2.5   $ 2,500,000      $ 2,875,000  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

     98   $ 98,000,000      $ 112,700,000  

The above table does not reflect accrued interest from, and including, August 21, 2017, which will be included in the purchase price of the notes that the underwriters purchase from us.

In addition, we estimate that the expenses of this offering payable by us, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $275,000.

 

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We have agreed that we will indemnify the underwriters and their controlling persons against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribute to payments that the underwriters or their controlling persons may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

We and our Manager, and each of our officers and directors, have agreed, subject to certain limited exceptions, not to (i) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, or in our case, file with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to, any shares of our common stock or such other securities or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for any shares of our common stock, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge, disposition or filing, or (ii) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers all or a portion of the economic consequences of ownership of any shares of our common stock or any such other securities (regardless of whether any of these transactions are to be settled by the delivery of shares of common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise), in each case without the prior written consent of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

The representatives, in their sole discretion, may release the common stock and other securities subject to the lock-up agreements described above in whole or in part at any time with or without notice.

The initial notes are not listed or quoted, and we do not intend to apply to have the notes listed or quoted, on any securities exchange or automated dealer quotation system. We cannot assure the liquidity of the trading market for the notes or that an active public market for the notes will develop. If an active public trading market for the notes does not develop, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected. If the notes are traded, they may trade at a discount from their initial public offering price, depending on prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities, our performance and other factors.

In connection with the offering of the notes, the underwriters may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions and syndicate covering transactions in the notes and shares of our common stock. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which creates a short position for the underwriters. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the notes or shares of our common stock in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the notes. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the notes or shares of our common stock in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions. Stabilizing transactions and syndicate covering transactions may cause the price of the notes or our common stock to be higher than it otherwise would be.

A prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on websites maintained by the underwriters or by their respective affiliates. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of notes for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be made by the underwriters on the same basis as other allocations.

Other Relationships

An affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, an underwriter in this offering, is the lender under the JPMorgan Facility. We may use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to repay amounts outstanding under the JPMorgan Facility. As such, an affiliate of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may receive a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, to the extent the JPMorgan Facility is repaid. See “Use of Proceeds.” Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have provided Apollo and certain of its affiliates in the past, and may provide to us, our Manager, Apollo and/or certain of their respective affiliates from time to time in the future, certain commercial banking, financial advisory, investment banking and other services in the ordinary course of their business, for which they have received and may continue to receive customary fees and commissions. In addition, in the past, the representatives or affiliates of the representatives of the underwriters have provided to Apollo credit facilities

 

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(including administrative agent and related services) as well as M&A advisory services and secondary market trading services (including swaps and foreign exchange) and have acted as an initial purchaser or underwriter with respect to private or public offerings of certain Apollo securities. In addition, in the past the representatives or affiliates of the representatives of the underwriters have provided to certain entities managed by Apollo, certain of the investment funds controlled by Apollo and to certain holding companies, acquisition vehicles and operating portfolio companies owned by those funds services similar to those provided to Apollo, as well as dealer manager and solicitation agent services. In each case, such affiliates of the representatives of the underwriters received customary fees, commissions and reimbursements of expenses for these transactions and services.

In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (which may include bank loans and/or credit default swaps) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investment and securities activities may involve our securities and instruments.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area

In relation to each member state of the European Economic Area that has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a relevant member state) with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that relevant member state (the relevant implementation date), an offer of securities described in this prospectus supplement may not be made to the public in that relevant member state other than:

 

    to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

    to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representative for any such offer; or

 

    in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive;

provided that no such offer of securities shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.

Each person in a relevant member state who initially acquires any securities or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that it is a “qualified investor” within the meaning of the law in that relevant member state implementing Article 2(1)(e) of the Prospectus Directive. In the case of any securities being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that the securities acquired by it in the offer have not been acquired on a non-discretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer of securities to the public other than their offer or resale in a relevant member state to qualified investors as so defined or in circumstances in which the prior consent of the representatives have been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.

We, the representatives and their affiliates will rely upon the truth and accuracy of the foregoing representations, acknowledgements and agreements.

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus has been prepared on the basis that any offer of securities in any relevant member state will be made pursuant to an exemption under the Prospectus Directive from the requirement to publish a prospectus for offers of securities. Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in that relevant member state of securities which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus may only do so in circumstances in which no obligation arises for us or any of the underwriters to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive in relation to such offer.

 

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Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of securities in circumstances in which an obligation arises for us or the underwriters to publish a prospectus for such offer.

For purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer of securities to the public” in any relevant member state means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the securities, as the expression may be varied in that member state by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that member state, and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including Directive 2010/73/EU), and includes any relevant implementing measure in each relevant member state.

We have not authorized and do not authorize the making of any offer of securities through any financial intermediary on their behalf, other than offers made by the noteholders with a view to the final placement of the securities as contemplated in this prospectus supplement. Accordingly, no purchaser of the securities, other than the noteholders, is authorized to make any further offer of the securities on behalf of us or the underwriters.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

This prospectus supplement has not been approved by an authorised person for the purposes of section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“FSMA”) and is, accordingly, only being distributed in the United Kingdom to, and is only directed at (i) investment professionals falling within the description of persons in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Financial Promotion Order”); or (ii) high net worth companies and other persons falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Financial Promotion Order; or (iii) to any other person to whom it may otherwise lawfully be communicated or made in accordance with the Financial Promotion Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”).

The notes are only available to, and any invitation, offer or agreement to subscribe, purchase or otherwise acquire such notes will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person who is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

An invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of FSMA) in connection with the issue or sale of any notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement will only be communicated or caused to be communicated in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of FSMA does not apply to the issuer.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Switzerland

The notes may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange (“SIX”) or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This document has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the notes or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, us or the notes have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this document will not be filed with, and the offer of notes will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA, and the offer of notes has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes (“CISA”). The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of notes.

 

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Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

The notes may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder, or (ii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32 of the Laws of Hong Kong), and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the notes may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to notes which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” in Hong Kong as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder.

 

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ADDITIONAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a summary of additional U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to “U.S. Holders” or “Non-U.S. Holders” (as such terms are defined below) relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of the notes offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and provides certain additional U.S. federal income tax considerations with respect to our taxation as a REIT and ownership of the shares of our common stock into which the notes may be converted. Prospective holders of the notes should review the discussion in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” as supplemented below, for a more detailed summary of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock and our election to be subject to U.S. federal income tax as a REIT. Terms not otherwise defined herein have the meaning assigned to them in the Prospectus.

This issuance of notes is intended to be treated as a “qualified reopening” of the initial notes for purposes of applicable Treasury Regulations. Accordingly, the notes are intended to be treated as being fungible with the initial notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes and will be treated as part of the same “issue” as the initial notes, and will have the same “issue date” and “issue price” as the initial notes for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

This summary is for general information only, and does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular holder of the notes in light of its investment or tax circumstances or to holders subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

    U.S. expatriates;

 

    persons who mark-to-market the notes or our common stock;

 

    subchapter S corporations;

 

    U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

    financial institutions;

 

    insurance companies;

 

    broker-dealers;

 

    regulated investment companies;

 

    trusts and estates;

 

    holders who receive the notes or our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

 

    persons holding notes or our common stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

 

    persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

    holders of notes who do not acquire the notes in this offering for cash at the price set forth on the cover of this prospectus supplement; and

 

    except to the extent discussed below, tax-exempt organizations and Non-U.S. Holders (as defined below).

This summary deals only with holders of our common stock and holders of notes that hold such stock or notes as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code.

You are urged both to review the following discussion and to consult with your tax advisor to determine the effect of ownership and disposition of the notes and the conversion of notes into shares of our common stock on your individual tax situation, including any state, local, or non-U.S. tax consequences.

 

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The information in this section is based on the Internal Revenue Code, current, temporary, and proposed Treasury regulations, the legislative history of the Internal Revenue Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, including its practices and policies as endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except in the case of the taxpayer to whom a private letter ruling is addressed, and existing court decisions. Future legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations, and court decisions could change current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law. Any change could apply retroactively. We have not obtained and do not intend to obtain any rulings from the IRS concerning the tax treatment of the matters discussed below. Thus, it is possible that the IRS could challenge the statements in this discussion, which do not bind the IRS or the courts, and that a court could agree with the IRS.

As used herein, the term “U.S. Holder” means any beneficial owner of a note or of our common stock, as the context requires, that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

    an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

    a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

    an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source;

 

    a trust if (A) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (B) it has made a valid election to be treated as a U.S. trust.

As used herein, the term “Non-U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of a note or of our common stock, as the context requires, other than an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, that is not a U.S. Holder.

If a partnership (including for this purpose any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) is a beneficial owner of notes or our common stock, the treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. A holder of notes or our common stock that is a partnership and partners in such partnership should consult their tax advisors about the U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of notes or exchanging notes for shares of our common stock.

THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF HOLDERS OF NOTES OR OUR COMMON STOCK DEPENDS IN SOME INSTANCES ON DETERMINATIONS OF FACT AND INTERPRETATIONS OF COMPLEX PROVISIONS OF U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAW FOR WHICH NO CLEAR PRECEDENT OR AUTHORITY MAY BE AVAILABLE. IN ADDITION, THE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF HOLDING THE NOTES OR OUR COMMON STOCK TO ANY PARTICULAR HOLDER WILL DEPEND ON THE HOLDER’S PARTICULAR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES. YOU ARE URGED TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, AND NON-U.S. INCOME AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU, IN LIGHT OF YOUR PARTICULAR INVESTMENT OR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES, OF ACQUIRING, HOLDING, AND DISPOSING OF THE NOTES OR OUR COMMON STOCK.

Taxation of Noteholders

The following is a summary of additional U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to “U.S. Holders” or “Non-U.S. Holders” (as such terms are defined below) relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of the notes offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement and of the shares of our common stock into which the notes may be converted.

 

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U.S. Holders of the Notes

Interest on the Notes

Except as noted below with respect to “pre-issuance accrued interest,” payments of interest on a note will be taxable to a U.S. Holder as ordinary interest income at the time such payments are accrued or are received (in accordance with the U.S. Holder’s regular method of tax accounting).

Additional Interest

If we fail to comply with certain obligations under the terms of the notes, such non-compliance may result in the payment of additional interest in the manner described under “Description of Notes—Events of Default.” In general, when the amount or timing of any additional payments on a debt instrument is contingent, such debt instrument could be subject to special rules that apply to contingent payment debt instruments. We intend, however, to take the position for U.S. federal income tax purposes that the possibility of such payments should not cause the notes to be subject to the special rules applicable to contingent payment debt instruments and, accordingly, that any such payments of additional interest should be taxable to you as ordinary interest income when received or accrued, in accordance with your usual method of tax accounting. This position is based in part on assumptions regarding the likelihood, as of the date of issuance of the notes, that such additional amounts will have to be paid. The remainder of this discussion assumes that the notes will not be treated as contingent payment debt instruments.

Pre-issuance Accrued Interest on the Notes

A portion of the price paid for a note will be allocable to interest that “accrued” prior to the date the note is purchased (referred to as “pre-issuance accrued interest”). To the extent a portion of a U.S. Holder’s purchase price is allocable to pre-issuance accrued interest, a portion of the first stated interest payment equal to the amount of pre-issuance accrued interest may be treated as a nontaxable return of a portion of the purchase price of the note rather than as interest income to the U.S. Holder. Amounts treated as a return of pre-issuance accrued interest would reduce the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the note.

Amortizable Bond Premium

If a U.S. Holder acquires a debt instrument for an amount that is greater than the sum of all amounts payable on the debt instrument after the purchase date, other than payments of qualified stated interest, then such U.S. Holder will be considered to have acquired the debt instrument with “amortizable bond premium.” In general, amortizable bond premium with respect to any note will be equal in amount to the excess, if any, of the amount the U.S. Holder paid for the note (excluding amounts in respect of pre-issuance accrued interest and the amount attributable to the value of the conversion feature of the note, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations) over the sum of all amounts payable on the debt instrument other than qualified stated interest. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the determination of the amount of amortizable bond premium on a note.

A U.S. Holder may elect to amortize bond premium on a debt instrument over the remaining term of the debt instrument. Once made, the election applies to all taxable debt instruments then owned and thereafter acquired by the U.S. Holder on or after the first day of the taxable year to which such election applies, and may be revoked only with the consent of the IRS. The election, therefore, should only be made in consultation with a tax advisor. In general, a U.S. Holder amortizes bond premium by offsetting the qualified stated interest allocable to an accrual period with the bond premium allocable to the accrual period, which is determined under a constant yield method pursuant to the applicable Treasury Regulations. If the bond premium allocable to an accrual period exceeds the qualified stated interest allocable to such period, the excess is treated by the U.S. Holder as a bond premium deduction. The bond premium deduction for each accrual period is limited to the amount by which the U.S. Holder’s total interest inclusions on the debt instrument in prior accrual periods. Any amounts not

 

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deductible in an accrual period may be carried forward to the next accrual period and treated as bond premium allocable to that period.

Sale, Exchange, Redemption or Repurchase of the Notes

Except as provided below under “—Conversion of the Notes,” a U.S. Holder will generally recognize gain or loss upon the sale, exchange, redemption, repurchase or other taxable disposition of a note equal to the difference (if any) between the amount of cash and the fair market value of property received in exchange therefor (other than amounts attributable to accrued but unpaid stated interest (excluding amounts in respect of pre-issuance accrued interest treated as a return of capital), which, if not previously taxed, will be taxable as ordinary interest income) and a U.S Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the note. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in a note generally will equal the cost of the note to such U.S. Holder, decreased by (i) any amount attributable to pre-issuance accrued interest that has already been paid to the U.S. Holder, and (ii) any amortizable bond premium taken with respect to such note. Capital gain or loss recognized upon the disposition of a note will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the note was held for more than one year. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gains to non-corporate U.S. Holders is generally 20%. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Conversion of the Notes

If a U.S. Holder receives solely cash in exchange for the notes upon conversion, the U.S. Holder’s gain or loss will be determined in the same manner as if the U.S. Holder disposed of the notes in a taxable disposition (as described above under “—Sale, Exchange, Redemption or Repurchase of the Notes”).

If we elect to settle a conversion solely in shares of our common stock, a U.S. Holder of a note will not recognize any income, gain or loss except to the extent of cash received in lieu of a fractional share of common stock (as described below), and except that the fair market value of common stock received with respect to accrued interest will be taxable as such (as described above under “—Interest on the Notes”). The tax basis of the shares of common stock received upon such a conversion (including any fractional share for which cash is paid but excluding common stock received with respect to accrued interest) will equal the adjusted tax basis of the note that was converted. A U.S. Holder’s holding period for shares of common stock received upon such a conversion (other than shares attributable to accrued and unpaid interest) will include the period during which the U.S. Holder held the notes.

If a combination of cash and common stock is received in exchange for a U.S. Holder’s notes upon conversion, we intend to take the position that the conversion should be treated as a “recapitalization” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under this treatment, the U.S. Holder will not recognize any loss, but will be required to recognize any gain. The amount of gain recognized by a U.S. Holder will equal the lesser of (i) the excess (if any) of (A) the amount of cash received (excluding any cash received in lieu of a fractional share of common stock and any cash received attributable to accrued and unpaid interest, which would be treated as described below) plus the fair market value of common stock received (treating a fractional share of common stock as issued and received for this purpose and excluding any such common stock that is attributable to accrued and unpaid interest) upon conversion over (B) the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the converted note and (ii) the amount of cash received upon conversion (other than any cash received in lieu of a fractional share of common stock and any cash received attributable to accrued and unpaid interest). The gain recognized by a U.S. Holder upon conversion of a note will be capital gain, and will be long-term capital gain if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in the note was more than one year at the time of conversion. Long-term capital gains of non-corporate taxpayers are subject to reduced U.S. federal income tax rates. The U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the common stock received (including any fractional share for which cash is paid, but excluding shares attributable to accrued and unpaid interest) will equal the tax basis of the converted note, decreased by the amount of cash received (other than cash in lieu of a fractional share of common stock and any cash attributable to accrued and unpaid interest), and increased by the amount of gain (if any) recognized upon conversion (other than any gain recognized as a

 

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result of cash received in lieu of a fractional share of common stock). The U.S. Holder’s holding period in the common stock (other than shares attributable to accrued and unpaid interest) would include the holding period in the converted note.

Alternative treatments of the conversion of the notes into cash and common stock are possible. For example, the conversion of a note into cash and common stock may instead be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as in part a conversion into stock and in part a payment in redemption of a portion of the note. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the tax treatment of the receipt of cash and stock in exchange for notes upon conversion or repurchase, including any alternative treatments.

If a U.S. Holder receives cash in lieu of a fractional share of common stock, the U.S. Holder will be treated as if a fractional share were issued to the U.S. Holder and then the fractional share were immediately redeemed for cash. Accordingly, the U.S. Holder will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the cash received for the fractional share and that portion of the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the common stock allocable to the fractional share. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in a fractional share will be determined by allocating the holder’s tax basis in the common stock between the common stock received upon conversion and the fractional share, in accordance with their respective fair market values.

Any cash and the value of any portion of our common stock that is attributable to accrued and unpaid interest on notes not yet included in income by a U.S. Holder will be treated as interest income, as described above under “—Interest on the Notes”. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the common stock received with respect to accrued interest will equal the fair market value of such stock, and a U.S. Holder’s holding period with respect to such shares will commence on the day after the receipt of such stock.

Adjustments to Conversion Rate

The conversion rate is subject to adjustment under specified circumstances. In certain circumstances, a U.S. Holder may be deemed to have received a distribution of or with respect to our common stock. In certain circumstances, the failure to make an adjustment to the conversion rate may result in a taxable distribution to U.S. Holders if, as a result of such failure, the proportionate interest of such holder in our assets or earnings and profits is effectively increased. Adjustments to the conversion rate made pursuant to a bona fide reasonable adjustment formula which has the effect of preventing the dilution of the interest of U.S. Holders will generally not be deemed to result in a constructive distribution of our common stock. Certain of the possible adjustments provided in the notes (including, without limitation, adjustments in respect of taxable dividends to our stockholders) do not qualify as being made pursuant to a bona fide reasonable adjustment formula. If such adjustments are made, we intend to take the position that a U.S. Holder will be deemed to have received constructive distributions from us, even though such Holder has not received any cash or property as a result of such adjustments. The tax consequences of the receipt of a distribution from us with respect to our common stock are described in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders” and “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Stockholders.”

Possible Effect of a Change in Conversion Consideration

In the event we undergo certain of the events described under “Description of Notes—Conversion Rights— Recapitalizations, Reclassifications and Changes of our Common Stock,” the conversion rate and the related conversion consideration may be adjusted such that you would be entitled to convert your notes into the stock (other than our common stock), other securities or other property or assets described in such section. Depending on the facts and circumstances at the time of such event, such adjustment may result in a deemed exchange of the outstanding notes, which may be a taxable event for U.S. federal income tax purposes. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such an adjustment.

 

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Ownership and Disposition of Shares Received Upon Conversion

The tax consequences of owning and disposing of common stock received upon conversion of the notes are described in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.”

Medicare Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. Holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, interest and dividends on and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or securities, including the notes. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax on their ownership and disposition of the notes.

Non-U.S. Holders of Notes

The rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of a Non-U.S. Holder are complex, and Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors to determine the effect of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax laws, as well as tax treaties, with regard to an investment in the notes.

Interest on Notes

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, and subject to the discussion below, U.S. federal withholding tax generally will not apply to payments by us or our paying agent (in its capacity as such) of interest on a Non-U.S. Holder’s notes under the “portfolio interest” exception of the Internal Revenue Code, provided that:

 

    the Non-U.S. Holder does not, directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of our outstanding voting stock within the meaning of section 871(h)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury regulations;

 

    the Non-U.S. Holder is not a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is related, directly or indirectly, to us through sufficient stock ownership (as provided in the Internal Revenue Code);

 

    the Non-U.S. Holder is not a bank receiving interest described in section 881(c)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

    such interest is not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a United States trade or business; and

 

    the Non-U.S. Holder provides a signed written statement, on an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E, or other applicable form which can reliably be related to the Non-U.S. Holder, certifying under penalties of perjury that the Non-U.S. Holder is not a United States person within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code and providing the Non-U.S. Holder’s name and address to (a) us or our paying agent; or (b) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the Non-U.S. Holder’s notes on the Non-U.S. Holder’s behalf and that certifies to us or our paying agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the bank or financial institution between it and the Non-U.S. Holder, has received from the Non-U.S. Holder a signed, written statement and provides us or our paying agent with a copy of this statement.

The applicable Treasury regulations provide alternative methods for satisfying the certification requirement described in this section. In addition, under these Treasury regulations, special rules apply to pass-through entities and this certification requirement may also apply to beneficial owners of pass-through entities.

If a Non-U.S. Holder cannot satisfy the requirements of the “portfolio interest” exception described above, payments of interest made to the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to 30% U.S. federal withholding tax unless the

 

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Non-U.S. Holder provides us or our paying agent with a properly executed (1) IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable form) stating that interest paid on the Non-U.S. Holder’s notes is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (in which case such interest would be treated as described under “—U.S. Holders of the Notes—Interest on the Notes”), or (2) IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E, or other applicable form claiming an exemption from or reduction in this withholding tax under an applicable income tax treaty.

Adjustments to Conversion Rate

The conversion rate is subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. Any such adjustment (or failure to make an adjustment) could, in certain circumstances, give rise to a deemed distribution or other income to Non-U.S. Holders of the notes. See “—U.S. Holders of the Notes—Adjustments to Conversion Rate” above. In such circumstances, a Non-U.S. Holder will be deemed to have received constructive distributions from us, even though such Non-U.S. Holder has not received any cash or property as a result of such adjustments. The deemed distribution would be subject to the rules described under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders” in the accompanying prospectus.

In the case of a deemed distribution, because such deemed distribution will not give rise to any cash from which any applicable U.S. federal withholding tax can be satisfied, the indenture provides that we may set off any withholding tax that we are required to collect with respect to any such deemed distribution against cash payments of interest or from cash or shares of our common stock otherwise deliverable to a holder upon a conversion of notes or a redemption or repurchase of a note. Non-U.S. Holders who are subject to withholding tax under such circumstances are urged to consult their tax advisors as to whether it can obtain a refund for all or a portion of the withholding tax.

Conversion, Sale or Other Disposition of Notes

Subject to the discussion below, a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized on the conversion, sale, exchange, redemption, or other taxable disposition of the notes unless:

 

    the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, in which case, the gain will be taxed as discussed below under “—Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business”;

 

    the Non-U.S. Holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 or more days during the taxable year of the disposition and specific other conditions are met (in which case, except as otherwise provided by an applicable income tax treaty, the gain, which may be offset by United States source capital losses, generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate), even though the Non-U.S. Holder is not considered a resident alien under the Internal Revenue Code); or

 

    the rules of FIRPTA treat the notes as USRPIs (as such terms are defined below).

If the gain is described in the first bullet point above, the Non-U.S. Holder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax as described under “—Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business.” With respect to the third bullet point above, we do not expect that the notes will constitute USRPIs. However, even if our common stock constitutes a USRPI, a Non-U.S. Holder’s disposition of the notes generally will still not be subject to tax under FIRPTA as a disposition of a USRPI provided that (i) our common stock is “regularly traded” on an established securities market (as defined by applicable Treasury regulations) and (ii) the Non-U.S. Holder did not own, actually or constructively, notes whose total fair market value on the date they were acquired (and on the date or dates any additional notes were acquired) exceeded the fair market value on that date (and on the date or dates any additional notes were acquired) of 10% of all of our common stock or, if

 

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the notes are “regularly traded” on an established securities market (as defined by applicable Treasury regulations), the Non-U.S. Holder did not own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of the total fair market value of the notes at any time during a specified testing period. If the gain from any disposition is subject to tax under FIRPTA, it will be taxed as if you were a U.S. Holder as described in “—Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business” below. In addition, in certain circumstances, the gross proceeds from a disposition may be subject to withholding at a rate of 15%.

Any amount paid to a Non-U.S. Holder on a conversion, sale, redemption or other taxable disposition of a note which represents accrued and unpaid interest generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules described above under “—Non-U.S. Holders of Notes—Interest on Notes.”

Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business

If any interest (excluding pre-issuance accrued interest) on the notes or gain from the sale, exchange, redemption, or other taxable disposition of the notes is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by a Non-U.S. Holder, then the income or gain will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates and in the same manner applicable to U.S. Holders, subject to reduction under an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and the Non-U.S. Holder’s country of residence.

Payments of interest that is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by a Non-U.S. Holder, and therefore included in the Non-U.S. Holder’s gross income, will not be subject to any withholding tax that may otherwise apply provided that the Non-U.S. Holder claims exemption from such withholding tax. To claim exemption from such withholding tax, the Non-U.S. Holders must certify their qualifications, which can be done by providing a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI or appropriate substitute form on or before any payment date. In addition, a “branch profits tax” may be imposed at a 30% rate, or a lower rate under an applicable income tax treaty, on a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation and that has earnings and profits that are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States.

Ownership and Disposition of Shares Received Upon Conversion.

The tax consequences of owning and disposing of common stock received upon conversion of the notes are described in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders.”

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

In general, information reporting requirements and backup withholding at the applicable rate will apply to payments on a note (including stated interest payments and payments of the proceeds from the sale, exchange, redemption, repurchase, retirement or other disposition of a note) to a U.S. Holder, unless the holder of the note (i) is a corporation or comes within certain exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates that fact or (ii) provides a correct taxpayer identification number, certifies as to his, her or its exemption from backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. Certain penalties may be imposed by the IRS on a holder that is required to supply information but does not do so in the proper manner.

Backup withholding generally will not apply to payments on a note to a Non-U.S. Holder if the statement described in “—Non-U.S. Holders of Notes—Interest on Notes” or “—Non-U.S. Holders of Notes—Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business” is duly provided by such holder, provided that the withholding agent does not have actual knowledge that the holder is a United States person. However, information returns may be required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any interest paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. Information reporting requirements and backup withholding will not apply to any payment of the proceeds of the sale of a note effected outside the United States

 

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by a foreign office of a “broker” (as defined in applicable Treasury regulations), unless such broker has certain relationships with the United States, although information reporting requirements may apply unless such broker has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a Non-U.S. Holder and certain other conditions are met, or the beneficial owner otherwise establishes an exemption. Payment of the proceeds of any such sale to or through the United States office of a broker is subject to information reporting and backup withholding requirements, unless the beneficial owner of the note provides the statement described in “—Non-U.S. Holders of Notes—Interest on Notes” or “—Non-U.S. Holders of Notes—Income or Gains Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business” or otherwise establishes an exemption. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld from a payment to a holder of a note under the backup withholding rules is allowable as a credit against such holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability (which might entitle such holder to a refund), provided that such holder furnishes the required information to the IRS.

Foreign Accounts

Legislation enacted in 2010 (commonly known as foreign account tax compliance act, or FATCA) and existing guidance issued thereunder generally imposes a 30% withholding tax on U.S. source payments, including dividends in respect of common stock and interest in respect of notes, and, after December 31, 2018, gross proceeds from a disposition of common stock or notes held by or through (1) a foreign financial institution (as that term is defined in Section 1471(d)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code) unless that foreign financial institution enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department to collect and disclose information regarding U.S. account holders of that foreign financial institution (including certain account holders that are foreign entities that have U.S. owners) and satisfies other requirements, and (2) specified other non-U.S. entities unless such an entity provides the payor with a certification identifying the direct and indirect U.S. owners of the entity and complies with other requirements. Accordingly, the entity through which our common stock or notes is held will affect the determination of whether withholding is required. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country, or future Treasury Regulations or other guidance, may modify these requirements. Holders of our common stock or notes are encouraged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this legislation on their particular circumstances.

Qualification and Taxation as a REIT

The following is a summary of certain additional U.S. federal income tax considerations with respect to our taxation as a REIT and the tax consequences of ownership of the shares of our common stock into which the notes may be converted. This summary supplements and, where applicable, supersedes the discussion under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus, and should be read together with such discussion.

Tax on Built-In Gains

The accompanying prospectus discusses the taxation of appreciated assets acquired by us from a subchapter C corporation in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the subchapter C corporation, under the eleventh bullet under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of REITs in General.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014, the period during which dispositions of properties that were acquired with net built-in gains from C corporations in carry-over basis transactions will trigger the built-in gains tax is generally 5 years.

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus, a REIT, in general, may jointly elect with a subsidiary corporation, whether or not wholly-owned, to treat the subsidiary corporation as a taxable REIT subsidiary, or TRS. In connection with the Merger, we acquired the stock of ARM TRS, LLC, formerly a TRS of AMTG, and

 

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we made an election, together with ARM TRS, LLC, to treat ARM TRS, LLC as a TRS, effective the date of the Merger.

Partnership Audits

As discussed under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Ownership of Partnership Interests” in the accompanying prospectus, a REIT is generally deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership, and the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. However, recent legislation may alter who bears the U.S. federal income tax liability in the event any subsidiary partnership is audited and an adjustment is assessed. Under the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, Congress revised the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships and the collection of any tax resulting from any such audits or other tax proceedings, generally for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Under the new rules, the partnership itself may be liable for a hypothetical increase in partner-level taxes (including interest and penalties) resulting from an adjustment of the partnership tax items on audit, regardless of changes in the composition of the partners (or their relative ownership) between the year under audit and the year of the adjustment. The new rules also include an elective alternative method under which the additional taxes resulting from the adjustment are assessed for the affected partners, subject to a higher rate of interest than otherwise would apply. These changes could increase the U.S. federal income tax, interest, and/or penalties otherwise borne by us in the event of a U.S. federal tax audit of a subsidiary partnership.

Interest Income

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Gross Income Tests—Interest Income,” interest income generally constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation upon which such interest is paid is secured by a mortgage on real property. Under the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, which was signed into law on December 18, 2015, or the PATH Act, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, in the case of mortgage loans secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all property securing the loan, then the loan will be treated as secured solely by real property for purposes of determining whether the mortgage loan is a qualifying asset for the 75% asset test and whether the related interest income qualifies for purposes of the 75% gross income test.

Hedging Transactions

Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, if we have entered into a qualifying hedging transaction as described in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations— Gross Income Tests—Hedging Transactions,” or an Original Hedge, and a portion of the hedged indebtedness is extinguished or the related property is disposed of and in connection with such extinguishment or disposition we enter into a new properly identified hedging transaction that would counteract the Original Hedge, or a Counteracting Hedge, income from the Original Hedge and income from the Counteracting Hedge (including gain from the disposition of the Original Hedge and the Counteracting Hedge) will not be treated as gross income for purposes of the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

Asset Tests

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Asset Tests,” to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must satisfy several asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year. Under the first test described in the accompanying prospectus, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must consist of the items listed in the accompanying prospectus. In addition to those items, qualifying

 

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assets for purposes of the 75% asset test include, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, (i) personal property leased in connection with real property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property,” and (ii) debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs. A “publicly offered REIT” is a REIT that is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act.

Notwithstanding that debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs are treated as qualifying real property assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, income and gains from debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs continue to be non-qualifying income for purposes of the 75% income test unless the debt instrument is otherwise secured by or treated as secured by real property.

In addition, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the aggregate value of all securities of TRSs held by us may not exceed 20% of the value of our total assets.

Finally, an additional test, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, provides that not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs to the extent such debt instruments are not secured by real property or interests in real property.

Annual Distribution Requirements

As discussed in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Annual Distribution Requirements,” prior to the PATH Act, in order for distributions to be counted towards our distribution requirement, and to provide us with a tax deduction, such distributions must not have been “preferential dividends.” However, under the PATH Act, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014, so long as we continue to be a publicly offered REIT, the preferential dividend rule will not apply to us.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

The accompanying prospectus discusses the taxation of U.S. stockholders on distributions with respect to “qualified dividend income” and “capital gain dividends” under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.” In addition to the discussion contained therein, effective for distributions in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, the aggregate amount of dividends that we may designate as “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income” with respect to any taxable year may not exceed the dividends paid by us with respect to such year, including dividends that are paid in the following year (if they are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration) that are treated as paid with respect to such year.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

The accompanying prospectus discusses the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, exemption on distributions attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, or USRPIs, with respect to non-U.S. stockholders that own no more than 5% of our common stock during the applicable period under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders—Dispositions of Our Common Stock.” The FIRPTA exemption limit on distributions on REIT stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market has been increased from ownership of more than 5% of such stock to ownership of more than 10% of such stock for distributions on or after December 18, 2015. In addition, the accompanying prospectus notes that we may be required to withhold 10% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. This 10% withholding requirement under FIPRTA was increased to 15% under the PATH Act for distributions after February 16, 2016.

 

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In addition, the PATH Act provides for additional exemptions from FIRPTA applicable to “qualified shareholders” and “qualified foreign pension plans.” Accordingly, the discussion in the accompanying prospectus is supplemented as set forth below:

Qualified Shareholders

Subject to the exception discussed below, any distribution by us attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI on or after December 18, 2015 to a “qualified shareholder” who holds our stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. tax as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. In addition, on or after December 18, 2015, a sale of our stock by a “qualified shareholder” who holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA even if our stock were otherwise treated as a USRPI. However, if our stock were treated as a USRPI and a non-U.S. person who holds an interest in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor) also holds more than 10% of our stock (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”), then such non-U.S. person’s pro rata share of our stock held by the qualified shareholder will generally be treated as a USRPI and therefore may be subject to FIRPTA withholding and taxation.

A “qualified shareholder” is a foreign person that: (i) either is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty that includes an exchange of information program and whose principal class of interests is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges (as defined in such comprehensive income tax treaty), or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the United States and has a class of limited partnership units representing greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units that is regularly traded on the NYSE or NASDAQ markets, (ii) is a qualified collective investment vehicle (defined below), and (iii) maintains certain records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, is the direct owner of 5% or more of the class of interests described in (i), above.

A qualified collective investment vehicle is a foreign person that: (i) would be eligible for a reduced rate of withholding under the comprehensive income tax treaty described above, even if such entity holds more than 10% of the stock of such REIT, (ii) is publicly traded, is treated as a partnership under the Internal Revenue Code, is a withholding foreign partnership, and would be treated as a “United States real property holding corporation” if it were a domestic corporation, or (iii) is designated as such by the Secretary of the Treasury and is either (a) fiscally transparent within the meaning of Section 894 of the Internal Revenue Code, or (b) required to include dividends in its gross income, but is entitled to a deduction for distributions to its investors.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds

Any distribution on or after December 18, 2015 to a “qualified foreign pension fund” (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a “qualified foreign pension fund”) who holds our stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. tax as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. In addition, on or after December 18, 2015, a sale of our stock by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA even if our stock otherwise constitutes a USRPI.

A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement: (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the United States, (ii) which is established to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (or persons designated by such employees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and provides annual information reporting about its beneficiaries to the relevant

 

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tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates, and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (a) contributions to such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is taxed at a reduced rate.

The provisions of the PATH Act relating to qualified shareholders and qualified foreign pension funds are complex. Stockholders should consult their tax advisors with respect to the effect of the PATH Act on them.

FATCA Withholding

Federal legislation may impose withholding taxes on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities, including payments of dividends with respect to our common stock and the gross proceeds of a disposition of our common stock. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Foreign Accounts” in the accompanying prospectus. Under an IRS notice, withholding tax will not apply to payments of gross proceeds with respect to dispositions of our common stock occurring before January 1, 2019. Prospective holders of our common stock should consult their tax advisers regarding the particular consequences to them of these rules.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Clifford Chance US LLP has passed upon the validity of the issuance of the notes offered by this prospectus supplement on our behalf. In addition, the description of U.S. federal income tax consequences contained in the section of the accompanying prospectus entitled “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” as supplemented by the section in this prospectus supplement entitled “Additional U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” is based on the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP.

Latham & Watkins LLP has represented the underwriters in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements and the related financial statement schedule incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC in connection with this offering. In addition, we file annual, quarterly, current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy the registration statement and any other documents filed by us at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room. Our SEC filings are also available to the public at the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Our reference to the SEC’s Internet site is intended to be an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. If a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts or other documents filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the filed copy of the contract or document.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus supplement the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. Information incorporated by reference is part of this prospectus supplement. Later information filed with the SEC will update and supersede this information.

This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference the documents listed below, all of which have been previously filed with the SEC:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 filed on February 28, 2017;

 

    our Definitive Proxy Statement filed on March 31, 2017 (but only with respect to information required by Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016);

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2017 filed on May 2, 2017;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2017 filed on August 1, 2017;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2017 filed on November 1, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 3, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 5, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 15, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 5, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 21, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on September 29, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 24, 2017;

 

    our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 27, 2017;

 

    the description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on September 10, 2009;

 

    the description of our Series A Preferred Stock set forth in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed on July 30, 2012;

 

    the description of our Series B Preferred Stock set forth in our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on September 23, 2015; and

 

    the description of our Series C Preferred Stock in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed on August 26, 2016.

 

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We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file (but not furnish) with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from the date of this prospectus until we have sold all of the securities to which this prospectus relates or the offering is otherwise terminated.

You may obtain copies of any of these filings by contacting us as described below, or through contacting the SEC or accessing its website as described above. Documents incorporated by reference are available without charge, excluding all exhibits unless an exhibit has been specifically incorporated by reference into those documents, by requesting them in writing, by telephone or via the Internet at:

Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc.

9 West 57th Street, 43rd Floor

New York, NY 10019

212-515-3200

Attn: Investor Relations

Website: http://www.apolloreit.com

The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement.

 

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PROSPECTUS

APOLLO COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE FINANCE, INC.

Common Stock,

Preferred Stock,

Depositary Shares,

Debt Securities

Warrants

and

Rights

 

 

We may from time to time offer, in one or more series or classes, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:

 

    shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share;

 

    shares of our preferred stock (which we may issue in one or more classes or series), par value $0.01 per share;

 

    depositary shares representing entitlement to all rights and preferences of fractions of shares of preferred stock of a specified class or series and represented by depositary receipts;

 

    debt securities;

 

    warrants to purchase shares of common stock or preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities; or

 

    rights to purchase common stock or preferred stock.

We refer to the common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants and rights, collectively, as the “securities” in this prospectus.

The specific terms of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and will include, as applicable: (i) in the case of our common stock, any public offering price; (ii) in the case of our preferred stock, the specific designation and any dividend, liquidation, redemption, conversion, voting and other rights, and any public offering price; (iii) in the case of depositary shares, the fractional share of preferred stock represented by each such depositary share; (iv) in the case of debt securities, the principal amount, maturity date, interest rate, seniority and any public offering price; (v) in the case of warrants, the duration, offering price, exercise price and detachability; and (vi) in the case of rights, the number being issued, the exercise price and the expiration date.

The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. It is important that you read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer the securities directly, through agents, or to or through underwriters. The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 9 for more information on this topic. No securities may be sold without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities. This prospectus may also be used to cover the resale of securities by one or more selling stockholders. To the extent that any selling stockholder resells any securities, the selling stockholder may be required to provide you with this prospectus and a prospectus supplement identifying and containing specific information about the selling stockholder and the terms of the securities being offered.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ARI” and our 8.625% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, or our Series A Preferred Stock, is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ARIPrA.”

 

 

An investment in these securities entails certain material risks and uncertainties that should be considered. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 3 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is May 7, 2015.


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CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SUMMARY INFORMATION

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     14  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     25  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF the MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     30  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     35  

BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

     59  

LEGAL MATTERS

     61  

EXPERTS

     61  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     61  

 

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APOLLO COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE FINANCE, INC.

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell any combination of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants and rights in one or more offerings. In addition, this prospectus covers shares of our common stock beneficially owned by one or more selling stockholders (the “selling stockholders”) that can sell those shares by means of this prospectus in the circumstances we describe. You should rely only on the information provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. Neither we nor the selling stockholders are making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale of these securities is not permitted. You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read carefully the entire prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision.

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified or the context requires otherwise, we use the terms “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” to refer to Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries; references in this prospectus to “Apollo” refer to Apollo Global Management, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, together with its subsidiaries; and references in this prospectus to “our Manager” refer to ACREFI Management, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and an indirect subsidiary of Apollo Global Management, LLC.

 

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SUMMARY INFORMATION

We are a real estate investment trust, or REIT, that primarily originates, acquires, invests in and manages performing commercial first mortgage loans, subordinate financings, commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, and other commercial real estate-related debt investments. We refer to the assets we target for acquisition as our target assets. Our principal business objective is to make investments in our target assets in order to provide attractive risk adjusted returns to our stockholders over the long term, primarily through dividends and secondarily through capital appreciation.

We are externally managed and advised by ACREFI Management, LLC, or our Manager, an indirect subsidiary of Apollo Global Management, LLC. Pursuant to the terms of the management agreement between us and our Manager, our Manager is responsible for conducting our business activities and day-to-day operations and providing us with our management team and appropriate support personnel. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with the year ended December 31, 2009.

Our principal executive offices are located at 9 West 57th Street, 43rd Floor, New York, New York 10019. Our telephone number is (212) 515-3200. Our website is www.apolloreit.com. The information on our website does not form a part of and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described in the section “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014, which has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before purchasing our securities. Each of the risks described could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, or ability to make distributions to our stockholders. In such case, you could lose all or a portion of your original investment. See “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 61 of this prospectus.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this document within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. For these statements, we claim the protections of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in such Sections. Forward-looking statements are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements. Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, may be forward-looking:

 

    market trends in our industry, interest rates, real estate values, the debt securities markets or the general economy or the demand for commercial real estate loans;

 

    our business and investment strategy;

 

    our operating results;

 

    actions and initiatives of the U.S. government and changes to U.S. government policies and the execution and impact of these actions, initiatives and policies;

 

    the state of the U.S. economy generally or in specific geographic regions;

 

    economic trends and economic recoveries;

 

    our ability to obtain and maintain financing arrangements, including securitizations;

 

    the anticipated shortfall of debt financing from traditional lenders;

 

    the volume of short-term loan extensions;

 

    the demand for new capital to replace maturing loans;

 

    our expected leverage;

 

    general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;

 

    changes in the value of our assets;

 

    the scope of our target assets;

 

    interest rate mismatches between our target assets and any borrowings used to fund such assets;

 

    changes in interest rates and the market value of our target assets;

 

    changes in prepayment rates on our target assets;

 

    effects of hedging instruments on our target assets;

 

    rates of default or decreased recovery rates on our target assets;

 

    the degree to which hedging strategies may or may not protect us from interest rate volatility;

 

    the impact of and changes in governmental regulations, tax law and rates, accounting guidance and similar matters;

 

    our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

    our ability to remain excluded from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the 1940 Act;

 

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    the availability of opportunities to acquire commercial mortgage-related, real estate-related and other securities;

 

    the availability of qualified personnel;

 

    estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future; and

 

    our understanding of our competition.

We caution that the foregoing list of factors is not all-inclusive. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements concerning us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements above. We caution not to place undue reliance upon any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. We do not undertake or accept any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement to reflect any change in our expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein reflect our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements are not predictions of future events. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations are subject to risks and uncertainties and can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. Some of these factors are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. Such new risks and uncertainties may be included in the documents that we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus which will be considered to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should carefully consider these risks before you make an investment decision with respect to our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants or rights.

For more information regarding risks that may cause our actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements, see “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014 and in the other documents that we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus, which will be considered to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES

AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

The following table sets forth our ratios of earnings to fixed charges and earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the periods indicated. The ratio of earnings to fixed charges was computed by dividing earnings by our fixed charges, and our ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends was computed by dividing earnings by our combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends. For purposes of calculating this ratio, “earnings” include pre-tax income from continuing operations before extraordinary items plus fixed charges less interest capitalized and income from equity investments. “Fixed charges” consists of interest expense and interest capitalized. This ratio is calculated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

 

    For the three
months ended
March 31, 2015
    For the year
ended
December 31,
2014
    For the year
ended
December 31,
2013
    For the year
ended
December 31,
2012
    For the year
ended
December 31,
2011(1)
    For the year
ended
December 31,
2010(1)
 

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

    2.76x       3.15x       11.56x       5.61x       2.66x       1.61x  

Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

    2.54x       2.75x       4.86x       4.37x       2.66x       1.61x  

 

(1) We had no shares of preferred stock outstanding during the periods presented.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities to acquire target assets, repay indebtedness or for general corporate purposes. Further details relating to the use of the net proceeds will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders offered by any prospectus supplement.

 

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

This prospectus also relates to the possible resale by certain of our stockholders, who we refer to in this prospectus as the “selling stockholders,” of shares of common stock (or securities convertible into shares of common stock) that were issued and outstanding prior to the original date of filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, consisting of shares of common stock issued under, and grants of securities convertible into shares of common stock granted under, the Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc. 2009 Equity Incentive Plan. One or more selling stockholders to be identified by prospectus supplement, post-effective amendment or incorporated by reference from our periodic or current reports may sell, under this prospectus and any applicable supplements, shares of our common stock issued or to be issued as described above. The selling stockholders shall not sell any shares of our common stock (or securities convertible into shares of common stock) pursuant to this prospectus until we have identified such selling stockholders and the shares being offered for resale by such selling stockholders as described above. However, the selling stockholders may sell or transfer all or a portion of their shares of our common stock (or securities convertible into such shares of common stock) pursuant to any available exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We and the selling stockholders may sell the securities to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them or may sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. Any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters and agents in any distribution contemplated hereby may from time to time be designated on terms to be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Underwriters or agents could make sales in privately negotiated transactions and any other method permitted by law. Securities may be sold in one or more of the following transactions: (a) block transactions (which may involve crosses) in which a broker-dealer may sell all or a portion of the securities as agent but may position and resell all or a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; (b) purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement; (c) a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable New York Stock Exchange or other stock exchange rules; (d) ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers; (e) “at the market” offerings or sales “at the market,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise; (f) sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers; or (g) through a combination of any of these methods. Broker-dealers may also receive compensation from purchasers of these securities which is not expected to exceed those customary in the types of transactions involved.

Underwriters or agents may offer and sell the securities at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed in relation to the prevailing market prices at the time of sale or at negotiated prices. We and the selling stockholders also may, from time to time, authorize underwriters acting as our agents to offer and sell the securities upon the terms and conditions as are set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of securities, underwriters or agents may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters or agents may sell securities to or through dealers, and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or the agents and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

Any underwriting compensation paid by us or the selling stockholders to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters or agents to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions, under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, our Manager or the selling stockholders, to indemnification against and contribution toward civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

We may have agreements with the underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms to indemnify them against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute with respect to payments that the underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms may be required to make. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of their businesses.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be; and it is anticipated that the maximum commission or discount to be received in any particular offering of securities will be less than this amount.

 

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Any securities issued hereunder (other than common stock or additional shares of our Series A Preferred Stock) will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters or agents to or through whom such securities are sold by us or the selling stockholders for public offering and sale may make a market in such securities, but such underwriters or agents will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot assure you as to the liquidity of the trading market for any such securities.

The selling stockholders may also sell shares of common stock in one or more privately negotiated transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act, Section 4(1) of the Securities Act or other applicable exemptions, regardless of whether the securities are covered by the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Such sales, if any, will not form part of the plan of distribution described in this prospectus. The selling stockholders will act independently of us in making decisions with respect to the timing, manner and size of each such sale.

The underwriters and the agents and their respective affiliates may be customers of, engage in transactions with and perform services for us, Apollo or our Manager or the selling stockholders in the ordinary course of business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the material terms of the common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants and rights that we may offer and sell from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement and are subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc. was formed on June 29, 2009. Our charter provides that we may issue up to 450,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, of which 3,450,000 shares were classified and designated as shares of 8.625% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, or our Series A Preferred Stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter by a majority vote of the entire board of directors to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the authorized number of shares of stock of any class or series without common stockholder approval. As of May 7, 2015, 58,429,155 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding and 3,450,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally will not be personally liable for any of our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

Common Stock

Shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, and when issued in exchange for the consideration specified therefor by our board of directors, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such shares of common stock out of assets legally available for such purposes if, as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, and the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all our known debts and liabilities.

The shares of common stock that we are offering will be issued by us and do not represent any interest in or obligation of our Manager, Apollo or any of their affiliates. Further, the shares are not a deposit or other obligation of any bank, are not an insurance policy of any insurance company and are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Company, any other governmental agency or any insurance company. The shares of common stock will not benefit from any insurance guaranty association coverage or any similar protection.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. A plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors is sufficient to elect a director and there is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election (other than any directors elected solely by the holders of any other classes and series of our stock), and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

Holders of shares of common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no pre-emptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, shares of common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge or consolidate with or convert into another entity, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless the action is advised by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is specified in the corporation’s charter. Subject to the voting rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock, including our Series A Preferred Stock, our charter provides that these actions (other than certain amendments to the provisions of our charter related to the removal of directors and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, and the vote required to amend such provisions, which must be approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the amendment) may be approved by a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify from time to time any unissued shares of common or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock, including one or more classes or series of stock that have priority with respect to voting rights, dividends or upon liquidation over our common stock, and

 

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authorizes us to issue the newly-classified shares. Prior to the issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. Subject to the rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock, including our Series A Preferred Stock, our board of directors may take these actions without stockholder approval unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automatic quotation system on which our securities are listed or traded. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common or preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common and Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our common stockholders, unless such approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to certain exceptions, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, beneficially or by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Internal Revenue Code, more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our capital stock. For a description of these ownership limits and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, of which 3,450,000 shares are classified and designated as shares of Series A Preferred Stock. On May 7, 2015, 3,450,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding.

Preferred stock may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to or separate from the securities. The following description of the preferred stock sets forth general terms and provisions of the preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The statements below describing the preferred stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of our charter and bylaws and any applicable designation designating terms of a series of preferred stock. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, dividend rights and other rights of holders of common stock. Our board of directors or a duly authorized committee could establish another class or series of preferred stock that could depending on the terms of the series delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for the common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the holders thereof.

Terms

Subject to the limitations prescribed by our charter, our board of directors is authorized to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of any class or series of preferred stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series of preferred stock, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to provisions in our charter regarding restrictions on ownership and transfer, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series.

Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to the class or series of preferred stock offered thereby for the specific terms thereof, including:

 

    the designation of the class and/or series of preferred stock;

 

    the number of shares of the class or series of preferred stock, the liquidation preference per share of the class or series of preferred stock and the offering price of the shares of preferred stock;

 

    the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment day(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the class or series of preferred stock;

 

    the date from which dividends on the class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate, if applicable;

 

    the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for the shares of preferred stock;

 

    the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the class or series of preferred stock;

 

    the provision for redemption, if applicable, of the class or series of preferred stock;

 

    any listing of the class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

    the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the class or series of preferred stock may or will be convertible into our common stock, including the conversion price or manner of calculation thereof;

 

    the relative ranking and preferences of the class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

    whether interests in shares of the class or series of preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

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    any limitations on ownership and restrictions on transfer on shares of the class or series of preferred stock;

 

    any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior or equal to the class or series of preferred stock being offered as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or the winding up of our affairs;

 

    a discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the class or series of preferred stock; and

 

    any other specific terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of the class or series of preferred stock.

The terms of each class or series of preferred stock will be described in any prospectus supplement related to the offering of shares of such class or series of preferred stock and will contain a discussion of any material Maryland law or material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the class or series of preferred stock.

Description of Our Series A Preferred Stock

In addition to any other class or series of preferred stock that we may offer, issue or sell pursuant to this prospectus, we have previously issued 3,450,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock. We may reopen this series and issue additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock pursuant to a supplement to this prospectus.

Our Series A Preferred Stock will rank, with respect to the payment of dividends and distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up: (1) senior to our common stock and any other classes or series of junior stock that we may issue in the future, if any, or our junior securities; (2) on parity with any classes or series of parity preferred stock that we may issue in the future, if any, or our parity preferred stock; and (3) junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness and any senior equity securities, if any. If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, holders of our Series A Preferred Stock will have the right to receive $25.00 per share, plus an amount per share equal to accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not earned or declared) to, but not including, the date of payment, before any payments are made to holders of our common stock or other junior securities.

Holders of our Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive cumulative cash dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock at the rate of 8.625% per annum of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference, which is equivalent to $2.15625 per annum per share. Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock will be payable quarterly in arrears on or about the 15th day of January, April, July and October of each year.

Dividends are cumulative from the date of original issue or the most recent dividend payment date to which dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock have been paid, whether or not in any dividend period or periods we have funds legally available for the payment of such dividends, whether we have earnings or whether such dividends are authorized by our board of directors.

We may not declare and pay or set apart for payment dividends on any parity preferred stock unless full cumulative dividends have been declared and paid or are contemporaneously declared and funds sufficient for payment are set aside on the Series A Preferred Stock for all prior full dividend periods, except that, if accrued dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock for all prior full dividend periods have not been paid in full or a sum sufficient for such payment is not set apart, then any dividend declared on the Series A Preferred Stock for any dividend period and on any parity preferred stock must be declared and paid ratably in proportion to accrued and unpaid dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock and such parity preferred stock.

We may not (i) pay or set apart funds for the payment of any dividend or other distribution with respect to any common stock or other junior securities (other than dividends or distributions paid solely in junior securities,

 

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or in options, warrants or rights to subscribe for or purchase junior securities, or distributions required to preserve our qualification as a REIT) or (ii) redeem, purchase or otherwise acquire for consideration any common stock or other junior securities through a sinking fund or otherwise (other than a redemption or purchase or other acquisition of shares of our common stock made for purposes of an employee incentive or benefit plan of our company or any subsidiary, a conversion into or exchange for junior securities or options, warrants or rights to subscribe for or purchase junior securities or redemptions or other acquisitions pursuant to the provisions of our charter relating to restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock intended to preserve our qualification as a REIT), unless, in either case, all cumulative dividends for all past full dividend periods with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock outstanding at the time such dividends are payable have been paid or we have set apart funds for payment of such dividends.

Our Series A Preferred Stock has no maturity date and we are not required to repurchase or redeem our Series A Preferred Stock. Accordingly, shares of Series A Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely, unless we decide to redeem them or, under circumstances where the holders of Series A Preferred Stock have a conversion right, those holders decide to convert their shares.

Except in instances relating to preservation of our qualification as a REIT or pursuant to our special optional redemption right discussed below, our Series A Preferred Stock is not redeemable prior to August 1, 2017. On and after August 1, 2017, we may, at our option, redeem our Series A Preferred Stock, in whole, at any time, or in part, from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the date of redemption (unless the applicable redemption date is after the record date fixed for a Series A Preferred Stock dividend and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in the redemption price). In addition, upon the occurrence of a change of control (as defined in the articles supplementary relating to the Series A Preferred Stock), we will have the option to redeem our Series A Preferred Stock, in whole, at any time, or in part, from time to time, within 120 days after the first date on which such change of control has occurred for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the redemption date (unless the applicable redemption date is after the record date fixed for a Series A Preferred Stock dividend and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in the redemption price). To the extent that we have exercised our redemption rights relating to our Series A Preferred Stock before an applicable conversion date, holders of Series A Preferred Stock will not be permitted to exercise the conversion right described below in respect of their shares called for redemption.

Upon the occurrence of a change of control, each holder of Series A Preferred Stock will have the right (unless we elect to redeem the shares of Series A Preferred Stock before the applicable conversion date, and subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter) to convert some or all of their Series A Preferred Stock into a number of shares of our common stock, per share of Series A Preferred Stock, equal to the lesser of (A) the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to, but not including, the change of control conversion date (unless the change of control conversion date is after the record date fixed for a Series A Preferred Stock dividend and prior to the corresponding Series A Preferred Stock dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for such accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in this sum) by (ii) the common stock price (as defined in the articles supplementary relating to the Series A Preferred Stock); and (B) 3.012, subject, in each case, to certain adjustments and provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration of equivalent value.

If a redemption date or conversion date is after the record date fixed for a Series A Preferred Stock dividend and prior to the related dividend payment date, holders of Series A Preferred Stock on the dividend payment record date will be entitled on such dividend payment date to receive the dividend payable on such shares on the corresponding dividend payment date, notwithstanding the earlier redemption or conversion of such Series A Preferred Stock.

 

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Holders of our Series A Preferred Stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if dividends on our Series A Preferred Stock are in arrears for six quarterly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive), the number of our directors will increase by two and the holders of our Series A Preferred Stock (voting together as a single class with the holders of any other class or series of parity preferred stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable) will have the right to elect two additional directors until we pay (or declare and set aside for payment) all dividends that are then in arrears and the dividend for the then current quarterly dividend period. In addition, and subject to certain exceptions, the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock (voting together as a single class with the holders of any other class or series of parity preferred stock upon which like voting rights have been conferred and with which holders of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to vote together as a single class) is required for us to authorize, create or increase the number of any class or series of senior equity securities or to amend our charter (including the articles supplementary designating our Series A Preferred Stock), whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, in a manner that materially and adversely affects the rights of our Series A Preferred Stock. Among other things, we may, without any vote of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock, issue additional shares of our Series A Preferred Stock and we may classify and issue shares of additional classes or series of parity preferred stock, common stock or other junior securities.

Our Series A Preferred Stock is subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer described below under “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Our Series A Preferred Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ARIPrA.” The transfer agent and registrar for our Series A Preferred Stock is Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock, including our Series A Preferred Stock. Our charter, including the articles supplementary relating to the Series A Preferred Stock, prohibits, among other restrictions, any person from beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock. We expect to include similar restrictions with respect to any class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus in the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to such class or series. For a description of this ownership limit and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Registrar and Transfer Agent

We will name the registrar and transfer agent for the preferred stock we issue pursuant to this prospectus in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares rather than full shares of preferred stock. In the event such option is exercised, each of the depositary shares will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a share of preferred stock of a specified class or series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement. The shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement, among our company, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares, or depositary receipts. Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges. The form of the deposit agreement and the form of the depositary receipt will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the deposit agreement and the form of designation for the applicable class or series of preferred stock. While the deposit agreement relating to a particular class or series of preferred stock may have provisions applicable solely to that class or series of preferred stock, all deposit agreements relating to preferred stock we issue will include the following provisions:

Dividends and Other Distributions

Each time we pay a cash dividend or make any other type of cash distribution with regard to preferred stock of a class or series, the depositary will distribute to the holder of record of each depositary share relating to that class or series of preferred stock an amount equal to the dividend or other distribution per depositary share that the depositary receives. If there is a distribution of property other than cash, the depositary either will distribute the property to the holders of depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by each of them, or the depositary will, if we approve, sell the property and distribute the net proceeds to the holders of the depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by them.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

A holder of depositary shares will be entitled to receive, upon surrender of depositary receipts representing depositary shares, the number of whole or fractional shares of the applicable class or series of preferred stock and any money or other property to which the depositary shares relate.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by a depositary, the depositary will be required to redeem, on the same redemption date, depositary shares constituting, in total, the number of shares of preferred stock held by the depositary which we redeem, subject to the depositary’s receiving the redemption price of those shares of preferred stock. If fewer than all the depositary shares relating to a class or series of preferred stock are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or by another method we determine to be equitable.

Voting

Any time we send a notice of meeting or other materials relating to a meeting to the holders of a class or series of preferred stock to which depositary shares relate, we will provide the depositary with sufficient copies of those materials so they can be sent to all holders of record of the applicable depositary shares, and the depositary will send those materials to the holders of record of the depositary shares on the record date for the meeting. The depositary will solicit voting instructions from holders of depositary shares and will vote or not vote the shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate in accordance with those instructions.

 

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Liquidation Preference

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holder of each depositary share will be entitled to what the holder of the depositary share would have received if the holder had owned the number of shares (or fraction of a share) of preferred stock which is represented by the depositary share.

Conversion

If shares of a class or series of preferred stock are convertible into common stock or other of our securities or property, holders of depositary shares relating to that class or series of preferred stock will, if they surrender depositary receipts representing depositary shares and appropriate instructions to convert them, receive the shares of common stock or other securities or property into which the number of shares (or fractions of shares) of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate could at the time be converted.

Amendment and Termination of a Deposit Agreement

We and the depositary may amend a deposit agreement, except that an amendment which materially and adversely affects the rights of holders of depositary shares, or would be materially and adversely inconsistent with the rights granted to the holders of the class or series of preferred stock to which they relate, must be approved by holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding depositary shares. No amendment will impair the right of a holder of depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipts evidencing those depositary shares and receive the shares of preferred stock to which they relate, except as required to comply with law. We may terminate a deposit agreement with the consent of holders of a majority of the depositary shares to which it relates. Upon termination of a deposit agreement, the depositary will make the whole or fractional shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares issued under the deposit agreement relate available to the holders of those depositary shares. A deposit agreement will automatically terminate if:

 

    all outstanding depositary shares to which it relates have been redeemed or converted; or

 

    the depositary has made a final distribution to the holders of the depositary shares issued under the deposit agreement upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

Miscellaneous

There will be provisions: (1) requiring the depositary to forward to holders of record of depositary shares any reports or communications from us which the depositary receives with respect to the class or series of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate; (2) regarding compensation of the depositary; (3) regarding resignation of the depositary; (4) limiting our liability and the liability of the depositary under the deposit agreement (generally limited to failure to act in good faith, gross negligence or willful misconduct); and (5) indemnifying the depositary against certain possible liabilities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee, which we may amend or supplement from time to time, or the indenture. The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the indenture including references to the applicable section of the indenture. It does not state the indenture in its entirety. We urge you to read the indenture because it, and not this description, defines the rights of holders of debt securities. Except as otherwise defined herein, terms used in this description but not otherwise defined herein are used as defined in the indenture. When we refer to “we,” “our,” and “us,” in this section, we are referring to Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc. excluding its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated herein. The indenture has been filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and you may inspect it at the office of the trustee at 150 East 42nd Street, 40th Floor New York, NY 10017. The indenture is subject to, and is governed by, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. If we issue the debt securities under a different indenture, we will file it and incorporate it by reference into the registration statement and describe it in a prospectus supplement.

General

The debt securities will be our direct obligations and may be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and may be either secured or unsecured. The indenture does not limit the principal amount of debt securities that we may issue. We may issue debt securities in one or more series. A supplemental indenture will set forth specific terms of each series of debt securities. There will be a prospectus supplement relating to each particular series of debt securities. Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to each particular series of debt securities, offered thereby for the specific terms thereof, including:

 

    the title of the debt securities and whether the debt securities are senior or subordinated debt securities;

 

    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of a series of debt securities which we may issue;

 

    the date or dates on which principal of the debt securities will be payable and the amount of principal which will be payable;

 

    the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) at which the debt securities will bear interest, if any, as well as the dates from which interest will accrue, the dates on which interest will be payable, the persons to whom interest will be payable, if other than the registered holders on the record date, and the record date for the interest payable on any payment date;

 

    the currency or currencies in which principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, will be paid.

 

    the place or places where principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable and where debt securities which are in registered form can be presented for registration of transfer or exchange;

 

    any provisions regarding our right to prepay debt securities or of holders to require us to prepay debt securities;

 

    the right, if any, of holders of the debt securities to convert them into common stock or other securities, including any provisions intended to prevent dilution as a result of the conversion rights;

 

    any provisions requiring or permitting us to make payments to a sinking fund which will be used to redeem debt securities or a purchase fund which will be used to purchase debt securities;

 

    any index or formula used to determine the required payments of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any;

 

    the percentage of the principal amount of the debt securities which is payable if maturity of the debt securities is accelerated because of a default;

 

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    any special or modified events of default or covenants with respect to the debt securities;

 

    any security or collateral provisions; and

 

    any other material terms of the debt securities.

The indenture does not contain any restrictions on the payment of dividends or the repurchase of our securities or any financial covenants. However, supplemental indentures relating to a particular series of debt securities may contain provisions of that type.

We may issue debt securities at a discount from their stated principal amount. A prospectus supplement may describe the material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to a debt security issued with original issue discount.

If the principal of, premium, if any, or interest with regard to any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency, we will describe in the prospectus supplement relating to those debt securities any restrictions on currency conversions, tax considerations or other material restrictions with respect to that issue of debt securities.

Form of Debt Securities

We may issue debt securities in certificated or uncertificated form, in registered form with or without coupons or in bearer form with coupons, if applicable.

We may issue debt securities of a series in the form of one or more global certificates evidencing all or a portion of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series. We may deposit the global certificates with depositaries, and the certificates may be subject to restrictions upon transfer or upon exchange for debt securities in individually certificated form.

Events of Default and Remedies

An event of default with respect to each series of debt securities will include:

 

    our default in payment of the principal of or premium, if any, on any debt securities of any series beyond any applicable grace period;

 

    our default for 30 days or a period specified in a supplemental indenture, which may be no period, in payment of any installment of interest due with regard to debt securities of any series;

 

    our default for 60 days or a period specified in a supplemental indenture, which may be no period after notice in the observance or performance of any other covenants in the indenture; and

 

    certain events involving our bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization.

The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any series of debt securities of any default (except a default in payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any) if the trustee considers it in the interest of the holders of the series to do so.

The indenture provides that if any event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of a series of debt securities then outstanding may declare the principal of and accrued interest, if any, on that series of debt securities to be due and payable immediately by written notice to us. However, if we cure all defaults (except the failure to pay principal, premium or interest which became due solely because of the acceleration) and certain other conditions are met, that declaration may be annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the applicable series of debt securities.

 

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The holders of a majority of the outstanding principal amount of a series of debt securities will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting proceedings for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

A supplemental indenture relating to a particular series of debt securities may modify these events of default or include other events of default.

A prospectus supplement will describe any additional or different events of default which apply to any series of debt securities.

Modification of the Indenture

We and the trustee may:

 

    without the consent of holders of debt securities, modify the indenture to cure errors or clarify ambiguities as evidenced in an officers’ certificate;

 

    with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the debt securities which are outstanding under the indenture, modify the indenture or the rights of the holders of the debt securities generally; and

 

    with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in outstanding principal amount of any series of debt securities, modify any supplemental indenture relating solely to that series of debt securities or the rights of the holders of that series of debt securities.

 

    However, we may not:

 

    extend the fixed maturity of any debt securities, reduce the rate or extend the time for payment of interest, if any, on any debt securities, reduce the principal amount of any debt securities or the premium, if any, on any debt securities, impair or affect the right of a holder to institute suit for the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any, with regard to any debt securities, change the currency in which any debt securities are payable or impair the right, if any, to convert any debt securities into common stock or any of our other securities, without the consent of each holder of debt securities who will be affected; or

 

    reduce the percentage of holders of debt securities required to consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver, without the consent of the holders of all the then outstanding debt securities or outstanding debt securities of the series which will be affected.

Mergers and Other Transactions

We may not consolidate with or merge into any other entity, or transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to another person, unless: (1) the entity formed by the consolidation or into which we are merged, or which acquires or leases our properties and assets substantially as an entirety, assumes by a supplemental indenture all our obligations with regard to outstanding debt securities and our other covenants under the indenture; (2) with regard to each series of debt securities, immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no event of default, with respect to that series of debt securities, and no event which would become an event of default, will have occurred and be continuing and (3) we deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and opinion of counsel, in each case stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture with respect to the merger or consolidation have been complied with.

Governing Law

The indenture, each supplemental indenture, and the debt securities issued under them is or will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities, and may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities, or attached to, or separate from, such securities. We will issue each series of warrants under a separate warrant agreement between us and a bank or trust company as warrant agent, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The form of the warrant agreement and the form of the warrant certificate will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not act for or on behalf of warrant holders. The following sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that may be offered under this registration statement. Further terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, where applicable, the following:

 

    the title of such warrants;

 

    the aggregate number of such warrants;

 

    the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued;

 

    the type and number of securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

    the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such offered security;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

    the price at which each security purchasable upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

    the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

    any anti-dilution protection;

 

    a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

    any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exercise and exchange of such warrants.

Warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new warrant certificates of different denominations and warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise or to any dividend payments or voting rights as to which holders of the shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon such exercise may be entitled.

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase for cash such number of shares of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities, at such exercise price as shall, in each case, be set forth in, or be determinable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the expiration date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, unexercised warrants will be void.

 

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Warrants may be exercised as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants. Upon receipt of payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants are presented for exercise with respect to a warrant certificate, a new warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

We may issue rights to our stockholders for the purchase of shares of common stock or preferred stock. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of rights. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The form of the rights agreement and the form of the rights certificates relating to each series of rights will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the rights to be issued, including the following, where applicable:

 

    the date for determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

    the aggregate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, and the designation and terms of any class or series of preferred stock, purchasable upon exercise of such rights and the exercise price;

 

    the aggregate number of rights being issued;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which such rights may be transferable separately;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise such rights shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

    any special U.S. federal income tax consequences; and

 

    any other terms of such rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of such rights.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

The following summary with respect to restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our charter documents. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter documents, copies of which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, shares of our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy other requirements as well. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, beneficially or by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, more than (1) 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock; (2) 9.8%, by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock; or (3) 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our capital stock. We refer to these limits collectively as the “ownership limit.” An individual or entity is referred to as a “prohibited owner” if, but for the ownership limit or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described below, had a violative transfer or other event been effective, the individual or entity would have been a record owner and beneficial owner or solely a beneficial owner of shares of our stock.

The constructive ownership rules under the Internal Revenue Code are complex and may cause shares of stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, of our Series A Preferred Stock or of all classes and series of our capital stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, shares of our stock by an individual or entity), could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to constructively own shares of our stock in excess of the ownership limit.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, subject to such conditions as it may determine and the receipt of certain representations and undertakings, prospectively or retroactively, waive the ownership limit or establish a different limit on ownership, or excepted holder limit, for a particular person if the person’s ownership in excess of the ownership limit would not result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. As a condition of its waiver or grant of excepted holder limit, our board of directors may, but is not required to, require an opinion of counsel or ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, satisfactory to our board of directors in order to determine or ensure our qualification as a REIT and may impose such other conditions and limitations as our board of directors may determine. Our board of directors has established an exemption from this ownership limit which permits Apollo and certain of its affiliates to collectively hold up to 25% of our common stock. Our board of directors has also established exemptions from the ownership limit for certain institutional investors, each together with certain of their specified affiliates, to hold up to 15% of our common stock.

In connection with granting a waiver of the ownership limit, creating an excepted holder limit or at any other time, our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limit unless, after

 

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giving effect to such increase, five or fewer individuals could beneficially own in the aggregate more than 49.9% in value of the shares of all classes and series of our capital stock then outstanding or we would otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT. Prior to the modification of the ownership limit, our board of directors may require such opinions of counsel, affidavits, undertakings or agreements as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to determine or ensure our qualification as a REIT. A reduced ownership limit will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership of our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, is in excess of such reduced ownership limit until such time as such individual’s or entity’s percentage ownership of our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, equals or falls below the reduced ownership limit, but any further acquisition of shares of our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or stock of any other class or series, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or stock of all classes and series will be in violation of the reduced ownership limit.

Our charter further prohibits:

 

    any person from beneficially or constructively owning, applying certain attribution rules of the Internal Revenue Code, shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

    any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limit or any of the other foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, or who would have owned shares of our stock transferred to a trust as described below, must immediately give us written notice of the event or, in the case of an attempted or proposed transaction, must give at least 15 days’ prior written notice to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions and limitations on ownership and transfer of our stock as described above is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

If any transfer of shares of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of shares of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limit or an excepted holder limit established by our board of directors, or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause such person to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary by the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limit or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be null and void.

Shares of stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the event that resulted

 

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in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares of stock at market price, the last reported sales price on the New York Stock Exchange (or other applicable exchange on which shares of our stock are listed) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (2) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We may reduce this amount by the amount of any dividend or other distribution that we have paid to the prohibited owner before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust and that are then owed to the trustee as described above, and we may pay the amount of any such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust as discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares of stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. After the sale of the shares, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares transferred to the trust will terminate and the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price, the last reported sales price on the New York Stock Exchange (or other applicable exchange) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. The trustee may (or in the case of shares of Series A Preferred Stock transferred to the trust in connection with a violation of the ownership limit applicable to the Series A Preferred Stock, shall) reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of any dividend or other distribution that we paid to the prohibited owner before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust and that are then owed to the trustee as described above. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the beneficiary of the trust, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if, prior to discovery by us that shares of stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount will be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary of the trust, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares held in trust and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares held in trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

    to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

    to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

In addition, if our board of directors determines in good faith that a proposed transfer or other event would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, our board of directors may take such action as it

 

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deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem the shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of more than 5% (or such lower percentage as required by the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give us written notice, stating the stockholder’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the stockholder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must provide to us in writing such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the stockholder’s beneficial ownership on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limit applicable to our common stock or to the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. In addition, every owner of our Series A Preferred Stock and every person who is holding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock for a beneficial or constructive owner of the shares must, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, provide us with a completed questionnaire containing the information regarding its ownership of such shares, as set forth in the regulations promulgated under the Internal Revenue Code as in effect from time to time and must, upon demand, provide us with such information as we may request in order to ensure compliance with the ownership limit applicable to the Series A Preferred Stock. In addition, each stockholder must provide to us in writing such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our qualification as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

Any certificates representing shares of our stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for the common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION

LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that, except as provided in the terms of our Series A Preferred Stock, the number of directors we have may be established only by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum required under the MGCL, which is currently one, and our bylaws provide that the number of our directors may not be more than 15. Subject to the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will hold office for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies.

At each annual meeting of our stockholders, our stockholders will elect each of our directors to serve until the next annual meeting of our stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. A plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors is sufficient to elect a director and holders of shares of common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, subject to any applicable rights of holders of our other securities, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote will be able to elect all of our directors.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed with or without cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board of directors, precludes stockholders from (1) removing incumbent directors except upon a two-thirds vote and (2) filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must generally be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (a) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting stock of the corporation and (b) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the Maryland corporation’s board of

 

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directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. The board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.

Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted business combinations (1) between us and any other person, provided that such business combination is first approved by our board of directors (including a majority of our directors who are not affiliates or associates of such person) and (2) between us and Apollo or any of its affiliates and associates, or persons acting in concert with any of the foregoing. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders, without compliance with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute.

The business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that a holder of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” has no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by stockholders on the matter, other than: (1) the person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are issued and outstanding voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock owned by the acquirer, or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (A) one-tenth or more but less than one-third; (B) one-third or more but less than a majority; or (C) a majority of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and delivering an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation’s board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders’ meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders’ meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to, among other things, (a) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There is no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

 

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Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions of the MGCL which provide for:

 

    a classified board;

 

    a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

    a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the board of directors;

 

    a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors in office and (if the board is classified) for the remainder of the remaining term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

    a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected in our charter to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 that provides that vacancies on our board may be filled only by the remaining directors and that directors elected to fill vacancies will serve for the remainder of the term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors for the removal of any director from the board, with or without cause, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (3) require, unless called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer, our president or our board of directors, the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such a meeting to call a special meeting.

Meetings of Stockholders

Pursuant to our bylaws, a meeting of our stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held annually on a date and at the time and place set by our board of directors. The chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president or our board of directors may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws and except as may be provided in the terms of any class or series of our stock, including our Series A Preferred Stock, a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be brought before a meeting of our stockholders will also be called by our secretary upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting on such matter and containing the information required by our bylaws. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder must pay such estimated cost before our secretary is required to prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.

Amendment to Our Charter and Bylaws

Except for amendments to the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, and the vote required to amend these provisions (each of which must be advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) and amendments to our charter that require the approval of holders of any other class or series of our stock, including our Series A Preferred Stock, our charter generally may be amended only if advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws.

 

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Dissolution of Our Company

The dissolution of our company must be advised by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting on such business or in the election of such nominee and who has provided notice to us within the time period containing the information specified by the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (1) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (2) provided that the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the special meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of such nominee and who has provided notice to us within the time period containing the information specified by the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, including business combination provisions, supermajority vote requirements and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were rescinded or if we were to opt in to the classified board or other provisions of Subtitle 8, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify each of our directors or officers who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity with us. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

    the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

    the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

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    in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

Under the MGCL, we may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit brought by us or in our right in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to us or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or in our right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of:

 

    a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by us; and

 

    a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by us if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

    any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

    any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, manager or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers that provide for indemnification to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may authorize us to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the acquisition, holding, and disposition of our common stock. For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us” or “our company” mean only Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc., and not our subsidiaries or other lower-tier entities, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is based upon the Internal Revenue Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, or the Treasury regulations, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS (including administrative interpretations and practices expressed in private letter rulings which are binding on the IRS only with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings) and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. No advance ruling has been or will be sought from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this summary. The summary is also based upon the assumption that the operation of our company, and of its subsidiaries and other lower-tier and affiliated entities will, in each case, be in accordance with its applicable organizational documents. This summary is for general information only, and does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular stockholder in light of its investment or tax circumstances or to stockholders subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

    U.S. expatriates;

 

    persons who mark-to-market our common stock;

 

    subchapter S corporations;

 

    U.S. stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

    financial institutions;

 

    insurance companies;

 

    broker-dealers;

 

    regulated investment companies, or RICs;

 

    trusts and estates;

 

    holders who receive our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

 

    persons holding our common stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

 

    persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

    persons holding their interest through a partnership or similar pass-through entity;

 

    persons holding a 10% or more (by vote or value) beneficial interest in us; and

 

    except to the extent discussed below, tax-exempt organizations and non-U.S. stockholders (as defined below).

This summary assumes that stockholders will hold our common stock as capital assets, which generally means as property held for investment.

THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF US AS A REIT AND HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK DEPENDS IN SOME INSTANCES ON DETERMINATIONS OF FACT AND INTERPRETATIONS OF COMPLEX PROVISIONS OF U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAW FOR WHICH NO CLEAR PRECEDENT OR AUTHORITY MAY BE AVAILABLE. IN ADDITION, THE TAX

 

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CONSEQUENCES OF HOLDING AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK TO ANY PARTICULAR STOCKHOLDER WILL DEPEND ON THE STOCKHOLDER’S PARTICULAR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES. YOU ARE URGED TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, AND FOREIGN INCOME AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU, IN LIGHT OF YOUR PARTICULAR INVESTMENT OR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES, OF ACQUIRING, HOLDING, AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK.

Taxation of Our Company—General

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2009. We believe that we have been organized and operated, and we intend to continue to be organized and to operate, in a manner that will allow us to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code.

The law firm of Clifford Chance US LLP has acted as our counsel in connection with the filing of this prospectus. We will receive the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2009, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code. It must be emphasized that the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP will be based on various assumptions relating to our organization and operation, including that all factual representations and statements set forth in all relevant documents, records and instruments are true and correct, all actions described in this prospectus are completed in a timely fashion and that we will at all times operate in accordance with the method of operation described in our organizational documents and this prospectus. Additionally, the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP will be conditioned upon factual representations and covenants made by our management and affiliated entities regarding our organization, assets, present and future conduct of our business operations and other items regarding our ability to meet the various requirements for qualification as a REIT, and assumes that such representations and covenants are accurate and complete and that they and we will take no action inconsistent with our qualification as a REIT. In addition, to the extent we make certain investments, such as investments in commercial mortgage loan securitizations, the accuracy of such opinion will also depend on the accuracy of certain opinions rendered to us in connection with such transactions. While we believe that we are organized and operated, and we intend to continue to operate, so that we will qualify as a REIT, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances or applicable law, no assurance can be given by Clifford Chance US LLP or us that we have qualified or will qualify as a REIT for any particular year. Clifford Chance US LLP will have no obligation to advise us or the holders of shares of our common stock of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed or of any subsequent change in the applicable law. You should be aware that opinions of counsel are not binding on the IRS, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge the conclusions set forth in such opinions.

Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual results of operations, distribution levels, diversity of share ownership and various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code, the compliance with which will not be reviewed by Clifford Chance US LLP. In addition, our ability to qualify as a REIT may depend in part upon the operating results, organizational structure and entity classification for U.S. federal income tax purposes of certain entities in which we invest, which could include entities that have made elections to be taxed as REITs, the qualification of which will not have been reviewed by Clifford Chance US LLP. Our ability to qualify as a REIT also requires that we satisfy certain asset and income tests, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets directly or indirectly owned by us or which serve as security for loans made by us. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

 

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Taxation of REITs in General

As indicated above, qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code. The material qualification requirements are summarized below, under “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.” While we believe that we have operated and intend to continue to operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification as a REIT or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, we will generally be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay to our stockholders and, therefore, will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that results generally from investment in a corporation. Rather, income generated by a REIT generally is taxed only at the stockholder level, upon a distribution of dividends by the REIT.

Stockholders who are individual U.S. stockholders (as defined below) are generally taxed on corporate dividends at a maximum rate of 20% (the same as long-term capital gains), thereby substantially reducing, though not completely eliminating, the double taxation that has historically applied to corporate dividends. With limited exceptions, however, dividends received by individual U.S. stockholders from us or from other entities that are taxed as REITs will continue to be taxed at rates applicable to ordinary income, which are as high as 39.6%. Net operating losses, foreign tax credits and other tax attributes of a REIT generally do not pass through to the stockholders of the REIT, subject to special rules for certain items, such as capital gains, recognized by REITs. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.”

Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation as follows:

 

    We will be taxed at regular U.S. federal corporate rates on any undistributed income, including undistributed net capital gains.

 

    We may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on our items of tax preference, if any.

 

    If we have net income from prohibited transactions, which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax. See “—Prohibited Transactions” and “—Foreclosure Property” below.

 

    If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (a) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (b) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate (currently 35%).

 

    If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount equal to (a) the greater of (1) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or (2) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test, as the case may be, multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

    If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests, as described below, other than a failure of the 5% or 10% REIT asset test that does not exceed a statutory de minimis amount as described more fully below, but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate (currently 35%) of the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

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    If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a gross income or asset test requirement) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

    If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, or the required distribution, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (1) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years), plus (2) retained amounts on which income tax is paid at the corporate level.

 

    We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

    A 100% excise tax may be imposed on some items of income and expense that are directly or constructively paid between us and any taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs, we may own if and to the extent that the IRS successfully adjusts the reported amounts of these items.

 

    If we acquire appreciated assets from a corporation that is not a REIT in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the non-REIT corporation, we will be subject to tax on such appreciation at the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate then applicable if we subsequently recognize gain on a disposition of any such assets during the 10-year period following their acquisition from the non-REIT corporation. The results described in this paragraph assume that the non-REIT corporation will not elect, in lieu of this treatment, to be subject to an immediate tax when the asset is acquired by us.

 

    We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool” or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or REMIC) to the extent that our common stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. See “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Taxable Mortgage Pools” and “—Excess Inclusion Income.”

 

    We may elect to retain and pay U.S. federal income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the stockholder’s basis in our common stock. Stockholders that are U.S. corporations will also appropriately adjust their earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury regulations to be promulgated.

 

    We may have subsidiaries or own interests in other lower-tier entities that are subchapter C corporations, the earnings of which could be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

In addition, we may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including state, local, and foreign income, franchise property and other taxes. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

The Internal Revenue Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1) that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

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  (2) the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3) that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for the special Internal Revenue Code provisions applicable to REITs;

 

  (4) that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

  (5) the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6) in which, during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include specified entities);

 

  (7) that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year that has not been terminated or revoked;

 

  (8) that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

  (9) that has no earnings and profits from any non-REIT taxable year at the close of any taxable year; and

 

  (10) which meets other tests, and satisfies all of the relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT qualification described below, including with respect to the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

The Internal Revenue Code provides that conditions (1) through (4) must be met during the entire taxable year, that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year, and that conditions (5) and (6) do not need to be satisfied for the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT has been made. We believe that we have issued common stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to satisfy the requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. Our charter provides restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of shares of our stock, which are intended, among other purposes, to assist us in satisfying the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. For purposes of condition (6), an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements, we are generally required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of shares of our stock. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of shares of our stock, in which the record holders are to disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include in gross income the dividends paid by us). A list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand must be maintained as part of our records. Failure by us to comply with these record-keeping requirements could subject us to monetary penalties. If we satisfy these requirements and after exercising reasonable diligence would not have known that condition (6) is not satisfied, we will be deemed to have satisfied such condition. A stockholder that fails or refuses to comply with the demand is required by Treasury regulations to submit a statement with its tax return disclosing the actual ownership of the shares and other information.

For purposes of condition (8), we have adopted December 31 as our year end, and thereby satisfy this requirement.

Effect of Subsidiary Entities

Ownership of Partnership Interests

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership, Treasury regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s

 

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gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, described below, the determination of a REIT’s interest in partnership assets will be based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Internal Revenue Code. In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of partnerships in which we own an equity interest (including equity interests in any lower tier partnerships) is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership.

Disregarded Subsidiaries

If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself, including for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs, as summarized below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is any corporation, other than a TRS, that is wholly-owned by a REIT, by other disregarded subsidiaries of a REIT or by a combination of the two. Single member limited liability companies that are wholly-owned by a REIT are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT gross income and asset tests. Disregarded subsidiaries, along with partnerships in which we hold an equity interest, are sometimes referred to herein as “pass-through subsidiaries.”

In the event that a disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly-owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Gross Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries

A REIT, in general, may jointly elect with a subsidiary corporation, whether or not wholly-owned, to treat the subsidiary corporation as a TRS. We generally may not own more than 10% of the securities of a taxable corporation, as measured by voting power or value, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. The separate existence of a TRS or other taxable corporation, unlike a disregarded subsidiary as discussed above, is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, a TRS would generally be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax and any applicable state and local taxes on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow generated by us and our subsidiaries in the aggregate and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We have made TRS elections with respect to ACREFI I TRS, Inc., a Delaware corporation that is wholly-owned by us, or ACREFI I TRS, and ACREFI II TRS, Ltd., a Cayman company that is wholly-owned by us, or ACREFI II TRS, and may make TRS elections with respect to additional entities we may form in the future. The Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder provide a specific exemption from U.S. federal income tax that applies to a non-U.S. corporation (or a non-U.S. entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) that restricts its activities in the United States to trading in stock and securities (or any activity closely related thereto) for its own account whether such trading (or such other activity) is conducted by such a non-U.S. corporation or its employees or through a resident broker, commission agent,

 

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custodian or other agent. ACREFI II TRS believes that it has operated and intends to continue to operate in a manner so that it is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on its net income. Therefore, despite the status of ACREFI II TRS as a TRS, it should generally not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its earnings. However, certain U.S. stockholders of non-U.S. corporations are required to include in their income currently their proportionate share of certain earnings of such a corporation, whether or not such earnings are distributed. As a result, we are required to include in our income, on a current basis, any earnings of ACREFI II TRS and under certain circumstances earnings of any other non-U.S. corporation in which we own a direct or indirect interest. This could affect our ability to comply with the REIT income tests and distribution requirement. See “—Gross Income Tests” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or other taxable subsidiary corporation or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the subsidiary. This treatment can affect the gross income and asset test calculations that apply to the REIT, as described below. Because a parent REIT does not include the assets and income of such subsidiary corporations in determining the parent’s compliance with the REIT requirements, such entities may be used by the parent REIT to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude it from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries or render commercially unfeasible (for example, activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as non-qualifying hedging income or inventory sales). We may hold a significant number of assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 25% of our total assets. To the extent that we acquire loans with an intention of selling such loans in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions,” such loans will be acquired by a TRS. If dividends are paid to us by one or more domestic TRSs we own, then a portion of the dividends that we distribute to stockholders who are taxed at individual rates generally will be eligible for taxation at preferential qualified dividend income tax rates rather than at ordinary income rates. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. First, if certain tests regarding the TRS’s debt-to-equity ratio are not satisfied, a TRS may not deduct interest payments made in any year to an affiliated REIT to the extent that such payments exceed, generally, 50% of the TRS’s adjusted taxable income for that year (although the TRS may carry forward to, and deduct in, a succeeding year the disallowed interest amount if the 50% test is satisfied in that year). In addition, if amounts are paid to a REIT or deducted by a TRS due to transactions between a REIT, its tenants and/or the TRS, that exceed the amount that would be paid to or deducted by a party in an arm’s-length transaction, the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of such excess. We intend to monitor our transactions with any of our subsidiaries that are treated as TRSs in an effort to ensure that we will not become subject to this excise tax; however, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in avoiding this excise tax.

Taxable Mortgage Pools

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or TMP, under the Internal Revenue Code if:

 

    substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

    more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

    the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

 

    the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

Under Treasury regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs.

 

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A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, ignored as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally, except as described below, be limited to the REIT’s stockholders. See “—Excess Inclusion Income.”

Gross Income Tests

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we annually must satisfy two gross income tests. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding gross income from sales of inventory or dealer property in “prohibited transactions” and certain hedging and foreign currency transactions, must be derived from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends received from and gains from the disposition of other shares of REITs, interest income derived from mortgage loans secured by real property (including certain types of mortgage-backed securities), and gains from the sale of real estate assets, as well as income from certain kinds of temporary investments. Second, at least 95% of our gross income in each taxable year, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging and foreign currency transactions, must be derived from some combination of income that qualifies under the 75% income test described above, as well as other dividends, interest, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, and other income that the IRS determines to be qualified income for this purpose, which need not have any relation to real property. We intend to monitor the amount of our non-qualifying income and manage our portfolio of assets to comply with the gross income tests, but we cannot assure you that we will be successful in this effort.

For purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, a REIT is deemed to have earned a proportionate share of the income earned by any partnership, or any limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in which it owns an interest, which share is determined by reference to its capital interest in such entity, and is deemed to have earned the income earned by any qualified REIT subsidiary.

Interest Income

Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date of our binding commitment to make or purchase the mortgage loan, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other property, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is not fully secured by real property and is secured by other property, we would be required to apportion our annual interest income to the real property security based on a fraction, the numerator of which is the value of the real property securing the loan, determined when we commit to acquire the loan, and the denominator of which is the highest “principal amount” of the loan during the year. The IRS has issued Revenue Procedure 2011-16 and Revenue Procedure 2014-51 addressing a REIT’s investment in distressed debt, or the Distressed Debt Revenue Procedures. The Distressed Debt Revenue Procedures interpret the “principal amount” of the loan to be the face amount of the loan, despite the Internal Revenue Code requiring taxpayers to treat gain attributable to any market discount, that is the difference between the purchase price of the loan and its face amount, for all purposes (other than certain withholding and information reporting purposes) as interest. Any mortgage loan that we invest in that is not fully secured by real

 

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property and is secured in part by other property will therefore be subject to the interest apportionment rules and the position taken in the Distressed Debt Revenue Procedures, as described above.

To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a mortgage loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had it been earned directly by us.

To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property in the hands of the borrower or us.

Any amount includible in our gross income with respect to a regular or residual interest in a REMIC generally is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as receiving directly our proportionate share of the income of the REMIC for purposes of determining the amount that is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property.

Among the assets we hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. The IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, the Revenue Procedure, which provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test (described above). Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. We treat certain mezzanine loans that may not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor as real estate assets giving rise to qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT asset and income requirements, or otherwise not adversely affecting our qualification as a REIT. Hence, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. To the extent we make corporate mezzanine loans or acquire other commercial real estate corporate debt, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test. To the extent that such non-qualification causes us to fail the 75% gross income test, we could be required to pay a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT.

We believe that the interest income that we receive from our mortgage-related investments and securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. However, to the extent we own non-REMIC collateralized mortgage obligations or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property) or secured by non-real estate assets, or debt securities that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property, the interest income received with respect to such securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. In addition, the loan amount of a mortgage loan that we own may exceed the value of the real property securing the loan. In the case of a mortgage loan that is not fully secured, income from the loan will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but the interest attributable to the amount of the loan that exceeds the value of the real property securing the loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test.

We may hold certain participation interests, including B Notes, in mortgage loans and mezzanine loans. B Notes are interests in underlying loans created by virtue of participations or similar agreements to which the

 

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originators of the loans are parties, along with one or more participants. The borrower on the underlying loan is typically not a party to the participation agreement. The performance of this investment depends upon the performance of the underlying loan and, if the underlying borrower defaults, the participant typically has no recourse against the originator of the loan. The originator often retains a senior position in the underlying loan and grants junior participations which absorb losses first in the event of a default by the borrower. We generally expect to treat our participation interests as qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests described below and interest that we derive from such investments as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. The appropriate treatment of participation interests for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not entirely certain, however, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our treatment of our participation interests. In the event of a determination that such participation interests do not qualify as real estate assets, or that the income that we derive from such participation interests does not qualify as mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests, we could be subject to a penalty tax, or could fail to qualify as a REIT.

We expect that the CMBS that we invest in will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income, original issue discount and market discount from such CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest, original issue discount and market discount on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. As discussed above, if less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our income derived from the REMIC interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities. We expect that substantially all of our income from CMBS will be qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.

Fee Income

We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by income or profits. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.

Dividend Income

We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions are generally classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends received by us from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

Income inclusions from equity investments in certain foreign corporations, such as ACREFI II TRS, are technically neither dividends nor any of the other enumerated categories of income specified in the 95% gross income test for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, in a recent private letter ruling (which may not be relied on as precedent, but which generally indicates the IRS’s view on the issue), the IRS exercised its authority under Internal Revenue Code Section 856(c)(5)(J)(ii) to treat such income as qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test notwithstanding the fact that the income is not included in the enumerated categories of income qualifying for the 95% gross income test. As a result, based on advice of counsel, we treat such

 

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income inclusions that meet certain requirements as qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Notwithstanding the IRS’s determination in the private letter ruling described above, it is possible that the IRS could assert that such income does not qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test, which, if such income together with other income we earn that does not qualify for the 95% gross income test exceeded 5% of our gross income, could cause us to be subject to a penalty tax and could impact our ability to qualify as a REIT. See “—Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests” and “—Failure to Qualify.”

Hedging Transactions

We may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including hedging instruments such as interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, interest rate floor or collar agreements, interest only strips, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements, swaptions, similar financial instruments or other financial instruments that we deem appropriate. Except to the extent provided by Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in Treasury regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, and (2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT but there can be no assurances we will be successful in this regard.

Rents from Real Property

To the extent that we own real property or interests therein, rents we receive qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income tests described above, only if several conditions are met, including the following. If rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under any particular lease, then all of the rent attributable to such personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. The determination of whether an item of personal property constitutes real or personal property under the REIT provisions of the Internal Revenue Code is subject to both legal and factual considerations and is therefore subject to different interpretations. We intend to structure any leases so that the rent payable thereunder will qualify as “rents from real property,” but there can be no assurance we will be successful in this regard.

In addition, in order for rents received by us to qualify as “rents from real property,” the rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property, if earned directly by us. Moreover, for rents received to qualify as “rents from real property,” we generally must not operate or manage the property or furnish or render certain services to the tenants of such property, other than through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from which we derive no income or through a TRS. We are permitted, however, to perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered rendered to the occupant of the property. In addition, we may directly or indirectly provide non-customary services to tenants of our properties without disqualifying all of the rent from the property if the greater of 150% of our direct cost in furnishing or rendering the services or the payment for such services does

 

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not exceed 1% of the total gross income from the property. In such a case, only the amounts for non-customary services are not treated as rents from real property and the provision of the services does not disqualify the related rent.

Rental income will qualify as rents from real property only to the extent that we do not directly or constructively own, (1) in the case of any tenant which is a corporation, stock possessing 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or 10% or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such tenant, or (2) in the case of any tenant which is not a corporation, an interest of 10% or more in the assets or net profits of such tenant.

Phantom Income

Due to the nature of the assets in which we invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

We may acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount. The amount of such discount generally will be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.

Some of the CMBS that we acquire may have been issued with original issue discount. In general, we will be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the CMBS, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments are received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question will be determined and we will be taxed based on the assumption that all future payments due on CMBS in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the CMBS are not made.

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or CMBS acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

Finally, we may be required under the terms of indebtedness that we incur to private lenders to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and the related cash receipts or disbursements, there is a significant risk that we may have substantial taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests

We intend to monitor our sources of income, including any non-qualifying income received by us, and manage our assets so as to ensure our compliance with the gross income tests. We cannot assure you, however,

 

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that we will be able to satisfy the gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may still qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. These relief provisions will generally be available if the failure of our company to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and, following the identification of such failure, we set forth a description of each item of our gross income that satisfies the gross income tests in a schedule for the taxable year filed in accordance with the Treasury regulation. It is not possible to state whether we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions in all circumstances. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances involving our failure to satisfy the gross income tests, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above under “—Taxation of REITs in General,” even where these relief provisions apply, a tax would be imposed upon the profit attributable to the amount by which we fail to satisfy the particular gross income test, which could be a significant amount.

Asset Tests

We, at the close of each calendar quarter, must also satisfy four tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by some combination of “real estate assets,” cash, cash items, U.S. government securities and, under some circumstances, stock or debt instruments purchased with new capital. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property, stock of other corporations that qualify as REITs and certain kinds of CMBS and mortgage loans. Regular or residual interests in REMICs are generally treated as a real estate asset. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets of the REMIC. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests described below. Second, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets. Third, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, as measured by either voting power or value. Fourth, the aggregate value of all securities of TRSs held by us may not exceed 25% of the value of our total assets.

The 5% and 10% asset tests do not apply to securities of TRSs and qualified REIT subsidiaries. The 10% value test does not apply to certain “straight debt” and other excluded securities, as described in the Internal Revenue Code, including but not limited to any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, (a) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership is not considered a security for purposes of applying the 10% value test; (b) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is derived from sources that would qualify for the 75% REIT gross income test; and (c) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership.

For purposes of the 10% value test, “straight debt” means a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors other than certain contingencies relating to the timing and amount of principal and interest payments, as described in the Internal Revenue Code and (iii) in the case of an issuer which is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Internal Revenue Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer which (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

Failure to Satisfy the Asset Tests

After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our qualification as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we

 

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fail to satisfy the asset tests because we acquire or increase our ownership interest in securities during a quarter, we can cure this failure by disposing of sufficient non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. If we fail the 5% asset test, or the 10% vote or value asset tests at the end of any quarter and such failure is not cured within 30 days thereafter, we may dispose of sufficient assets (generally within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure to satisfy these asset tests occurred) to cure such a violation that does not exceed the lesser of 1% of our assets at the end of the relevant quarter or $10,000,000. If we fail any of the other asset tests or our failure of the 5% and 10% asset tests is in excess of the de minimis amount described above, as long as such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, we are permitted to avoid disqualification as a REIT, after the 30 day cure period, by taking steps including the disposition of sufficient assets to meet the asset test (generally within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure to satisfy the REIT asset test occurred) and paying a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 35%) of the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset test.

We expect that the assets comprising our mortgage-related investments and securities that we own generally will continue to be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, and that our holdings of TRSs and other assets will continue to be structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will continue to be successful in this effort. We do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets including our interests in our TRSs may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers cause a violation of the REIT asset tests.

In addition, we have and may continue to enter into repurchase agreements under which we nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any such agreements notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements

In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

(a) the sum of:

 

    90% of our “REIT taxable income” (computed without regard to our deduction for dividends paid and our net capital gains); and

 

    90% of the net income (after tax), if any, from foreclosure property (as described below); minus

 

  (b) the sum of specified items of non-cash income that exceeds a percentage of our income.

These distributions must be paid in the taxable year to which they relate or in the following taxable year if such distributions are declared in October, November or December of the taxable year, are payable to stockholders of record on a specified date in any such month and are actually paid before the end of January of the following year. Such distributions are treated as both paid by us and received by each stockholder on December 31 of the year in which they are declared. In addition, at our election, a distribution for a taxable year may be declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and be paid with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided that such payment is made during the 12-month period

 

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following the close of such taxable year. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement.

In order for distributions to be counted towards our distribution requirement and to give rise to a tax deduction by us, they must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if it is pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class and is in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in the organizational documents.

To the extent that we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax at ordinary U.S. federal corporate tax rates on the retained portion. In addition, we may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income and receive a corresponding credit or refund, as the case may be, for their proportionate share of the tax paid by us. Our stockholders would then increase the adjusted basis of their stock in us by the difference between the designated amounts included in their long-term capital gains and the tax deemed paid with respect to their proportionate shares. Stockholders that are U.S. corporations would also appropriately adjust their earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury regulations to be promulgated.

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior periods) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid U.S. federal corporate income tax. We intend to make timely distributions so that we are not subject to the 4% excise tax.

It is possible that we, from time to time, may not have sufficient cash to meet the distribution requirements due to timing differences between (a) the actual receipt of cash, including receipt of distributions from our subsidiaries and (b) the inclusion of items in income by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, we may acquire debt instruments or notes whose face value may exceed its issue price as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, resulting in original issue discount, such that we will be required to include in our income a portion of the original issue discount each year that the instrument is held before we receive any corresponding cash. Furthermore, we will likely invest in assets that accrue market discount, which may require us to defer a portion of the interest deduction for interest paid on debt incurred to acquire or carry such assets. In the event that such timing differences occur, in order to meet the distribution requirements, it might be necessary to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings, to use cash reserves, to liquidate non cash assets at rates or times we regard as unfavorable, or to pay dividends in the form of taxable in-kind distributions of property including taxable stock dividends. In the case of a taxable stock dividend, stockholders would be required to include the dividend as income and would be required to satisfy the tax liability associated with the distribution with cash from other sources including sales of our common stock. Both a taxable stock distribution and sale of common stock resulting from such distribution could adversely affect the price of our common stock. We may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In this case, we may be able to avoid losing our qualification as a REIT or being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest and a penalty based on the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We are required to maintain records and request on an annual basis information from specified stockholders. These requirements are designed to assist us in determining the actual ownership of our outstanding stock and maintaining our qualifications as a REIT.

 

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Excess Inclusion Income

A portion of our income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” A REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its stockholders in proportion to dividends paid. We are required to notify stockholders of the amount of “excess inclusion income” allocated to them. A stockholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

    cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder,

 

    in the case of a stockholder that is a REIT, a RIC, or a common trust fund or other pass through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity,

 

    is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax,

 

    results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. stockholders, and

 

    is taxable (at the highest U.S. federal corporate tax rate, currently 35%) to the REIT, rather than its stockholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s stock held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).

The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.

Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our securities.

If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly-own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.

Prohibited Transactions

Net income we derive from a prohibited transaction is subject to a 100% tax. The term “prohibited transaction” generally includes a sale or other disposition of property (other than foreclosure property) that is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, in the ordinary course of a trade or business by a REIT, by a lower-tier partnership in which the REIT holds an equity interest or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to the REIT. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset owned by us or our pass-through subsidiaries will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any assets owned by us directly or through a pass-through subsidiary will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, whether property is held as inventory or “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the particular facts and circumstances. No assurance can be given that any particular asset in which we hold a direct or indirect interest will not be treated as property held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers or that certain safe harbor provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that prevent such treatment will apply. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular U.S. federal corporate income tax rates.

 

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Foreclosure Property

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the maximum U.S. federal corporate tax rate (currently 35%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. We do not anticipate that we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but, if we do receive any such income, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

Failure to Qualify

In the event that we violate a provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, we may nevertheless continue to qualify as a REIT under specified relief provisions that will be available to us to avoid such disqualification if (1) the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, (2) we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure to satisfy a requirement for qualification as a REIT and (3) the violation does not include a violation under the gross income or asset tests described above (for which other specified relief provisions are available). This cure provision reduces the instances that could lead to our disqualification as a REIT for violations due to reasonable cause. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and none of the relief provisions of the Internal Revenue Code apply, we will be subject to tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we are not a REIT will not be deductible by us, nor will they be required to be made. In this situation, to the extent of current or accumulated earnings and profits, and, subject to limitations of the Internal Revenue Code, distributions to our stockholders will generally be taxable in the case of our stockholders who are individual U.S. stockholders (as defined below), at a maximum rate of 20%, and dividends in the hands of our corporate U.S. stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction. Unless we are entitled to relief under the specific statutory provisions, we will also be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following a year during which qualification was lost. It is not possible to state whether, in all circumstances, we will be entitled to statutory relief.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

This section summarizes the taxation of U.S. stockholders that are not tax-exempt organizations. For these purposes, a U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our common stock that for U.S. federal income tax purposes is:

 

    an individual who is a citizen or resident of the U.S.;

 

    a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the U.S. or of a political subdivision thereof (including the District of Columbia);

 

    an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

    any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.

 

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If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A partner of a partnership holding our common stock should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to the partner of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock by the partnership.

Distributions

Provided that we continue to qualify as a REIT, distributions made to our taxable U.S. stockholders out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, and not designated as capital gain dividends, will generally be taken into account by them as ordinary dividend income and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. In determining the extent to which a distribution with respect to our common stock constitutes a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock, if any, and then to our common stock. Dividends received from REITs are generally not eligible to be taxed at the preferential qualified dividend income rates applicable to individual U.S. stockholders who receive dividends from taxable subchapter C corporations.

In addition, distributions from us that are designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed to U.S. stockholders as long-term capital gains, to the extent that they do not exceed the actual net capital gain of our company for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held its stock. To the extent that we elect under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code to retain our net capital gains, U.S. stockholders will be treated as having received, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our undistributed capital gains as well as a corresponding credit or refund, as the case may be, for taxes paid by us on such retained capital gains. U.S. stockholders will increase their adjusted tax basis in our common stock by the difference between their allocable share of such retained capital gain and their share of the tax paid by us. Corporate U.S. stockholders may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Long-term capital gains are generally taxable at maximum U.S. federal rates of 20% in the case of U.S. stockholders who are individuals, and 35% for corporations. Capital gains attributable to the sale of depreciable real property held for more than 12 months are subject to a 25% maximum U.S. federal income tax rate for U.S. stockholders who are individuals, to the extent of previously claimed depreciation deductions.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. stockholder to the extent that they do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the U.S. stockholder’s shares of our common stock in respect of which the distributions were made, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of these shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of a U.S. stockholder’s shares of our common stock, they will be included in income as long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less. In addition, any dividend declared by us in October, November or December of any year and payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that the dividend is actually paid by us before the end of January of the following calendar year.

With respect to U.S. stockholders who are taxed at the rates applicable to individuals, we may elect to designate a portion of our distributions paid to such U.S. stockholders as “qualified dividend income.” A portion of a distribution that is properly designated as qualified dividend income is taxable to non-corporate U.S. stockholders as capital gain, provided that the U.S. stockholder has held our common stock with respect to which the distribution is made for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which such common stock became ex-dividend with respect to the relevant distribution. The maximum amount of our distributions eligible to be designated as qualified dividend income for a taxable year is equal to the sum of:

 

  (a) the qualified dividend income received by us during such taxable year from non-REIT C corporations (including any domestic TRS in which we may own an interest);

 

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  (b) the excess of any “undistributed” REIT taxable income recognized during the immediately preceding year over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such undistributed REIT taxable income; and

 

  (c) the excess of any income recognized during the immediately preceding year attributable to the sale of a built-in-gain asset that was acquired in a carry-over basis transaction from a non-REIT C corporation over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such built-in gain.

Generally, dividends that we receive will be treated as qualified dividend income for purposes of (a) above if the dividends are received from a domestic C corporation (other than a REIT or a RIC), any domestic TRS we may form, or a “qualified foreign corporation” and specified holding period requirements and other requirements are met.

To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that must be made in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of our Company—General” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” Such losses, however, are not passed through to U.S. stockholders and do not offset income of U.S. stockholders from other sources, nor do they affect the character of any distributions that are actually made by us, which are generally subject to tax in the hands of U.S. stockholders to the extent that we have current or accumulated earnings and profits.

If excess inclusion income from a taxable mortgage pool or REMIC residual interest is allocated to any stockholder, that income will be taxable in the hands of the stockholder and would not be offset by any net operating losses of the stockholder that would otherwise be available. See “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Taxable Mortgage Pools” and “—Excess Inclusion Income.” As required by IRS guidance, we intend to notify our stockholders if a portion of a dividend paid by us is attributable to excess inclusion income.

Dispositions of Our Common Stock

In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss upon the sale, redemption or other taxable disposition of our common stock in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock at the time of the disposition. In general, a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of net capital gains deemed distributed to the U.S. stockholder (discussed above) less tax deemed paid on it and reduced by returns of capital. In general, capital gains recognized by individuals and other non-corporate U.S. stockholders upon the sale or disposition of shares of our common stock will be subject to a maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 20%, if our common stock is held for more than 12 months, and will be taxed at ordinary income rates of up to 39.6% if our common stock is held for 12 months or less. Gains recognized by U.S. stockholders that are corporations are subject to U.S. federal income tax at a maximum rate of 35%, whether or not classified as long-term capital gains. The IRS has the authority to prescribe, but has not yet prescribed, regulations that would apply a capital gain tax rate of 25% (which is generally higher than the long-term capital gain tax rates for non-corporate holders) to a portion of capital gain realized by a non-corporate holder on the sale of REIT stock or depositary shares that would correspond to the REIT’s “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain.”

Holders are advised to consult with their tax advisors with respect to their capital gain tax liability. Capital losses recognized by a U.S. stockholder upon the disposition of our common stock held for more than one year at the time of disposition will be considered long-term capital losses, and are generally available only to offset capital gain income of the U.S. stockholder but not ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year). In addition, any loss upon a sale or exchange of shares of our common stock by a U.S. stockholder who has held the shares for six months or less, after applying holding period rules, will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of distributions received from us that were required to be treated by the U.S. stockholder as long-term capital gain.

 

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Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

Distributions made by us and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. stockholder of our common stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. stockholders will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against income or gain relating to our common stock. Distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation. A U.S. stockholder that elects to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of stock or qualified dividend income as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amounts.

Medicare Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. stockholders that are individuals, estates or trusts must pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock. U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this legislation on their ownership and disposition of our common stock.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Stockholders

U.S. tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, which we refer to in this prospectus as UBTI. While many investments in real estate may generate UBTI, the IRS has ruled that dividend distributions from a REIT to a tax-exempt entity do not constitute UBTI. Based on that ruling, and provided that (1) a tax-exempt U.S. stockholder has not held our common stock as “debt financed property” within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code (i.e., where the acquisition or holding of the property is financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt stockholder) and (2) we do not hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income” (see “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities,” and “—Excess Inclusion Income”), distributions from us and income from the sale of our common stock generally should not give rise to UBTI to a tax-exempt U.S. stockholder. As previously noted, we may engage in transactions that would result in a portion of our dividend income being considered “excess inclusion income,” and accordingly, it is possible that a portion of our dividends received by a tax-exempt stockholder will be treated as UBTI.

Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) and (c)(20) of the Internal Revenue Code, respectively, are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions from us as UBTI, unless they are able to properly exclude certain amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our common stock. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

In certain circumstances, a pension trust (1) that is described in Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, (2) that is tax exempt under Section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, and (3) that owns more than 10% of our stock could be required to treat a percentage of the dividends from us as UBTI if we are a “pension-held REIT.” We will not be a pension-held REIT unless (1) either (A) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock, or (B) a group of pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of such stock; and (2) we would not have qualified as a REIT but for the fact that Section 856(h)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code provides that stock owned by such trusts shall be treated, for purposes of the requirement that not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding stock of a REIT is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities), as owned by the beneficiaries of such trusts. Certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock should generally prevent a tax-exempt entity from owning more than 10% of the value of our stock, or us from becoming a pension-held REIT.

 

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Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of owning our stock.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

The following is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock applicable to non-U.S. stockholders of our common stock. For purposes of this summary, a non-U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our common stock that is neither a U.S. stockholder nor an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The discussion is based on current law and is for general information only. It addresses only selective and not all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation.

Non-U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal estate consequences of ownership of our common stock.

Ordinary Dividends

The portion of dividends received by non-U.S. stockholders payable out of our earnings and profits that are not attributable to gains from sales or exchanges of U.S. real property interests and which are not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder will generally be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless reduced or eliminated by an applicable income tax treaty. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. As previously noted, we may engage in transactions that would result in a portion of our dividends being considered excess inclusion income, and accordingly, it is possible that a portion of our dividend income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding rate or a reduced treaty rate. In the case of a taxable stock dividend with respect to which any withholding tax is imposed on a non-U.S. stockholder, we may have to withhold or dispose of part of the shares otherwise distributable in such dividend and use such withheld shares or the proceeds of such disposition to satisfy the withholding tax imposed.

In general, non-U.S. stockholders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our stock. In cases where the dividend income from a non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is, or is treated as, effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed with respect to such dividends, and may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on the income after the application of the income tax in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation.

Non-Dividend Distributions

Unless (A) our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest, or USRPI, or (B) either (1) the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain and, in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation, may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such gain after the application of the income tax) or (2) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S. (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain for the year), distributions by us which are not dividends out of our earnings and profits will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. If it cannot be determined at the time at which a distribution is made whether or not the distribution will exceed current and accumulated earnings

 

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and profits, the distribution will be subject to withholding at the rate applicable to dividends. However, the non-U.S. stockholder may seek a refund from the IRS of any amounts withheld if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

If our common stock constitutes a USRPI, as described below, distributions by us in excess of the sum of our earnings and profits plus the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock will be taxed under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. stockholder of the same type (e.g., an individual or a corporation, as the case may be), and the collection of the tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding at a rate of 10% of the amount by which the distribution exceeds the stockholder’s share of our earnings and profits. As described below, we do not expect shares of our common stock to constitute USRPIs.

Capital Gain Dividends

Under FIRPTA, a distribution made by us to a non-U.S. stockholder, to the extent attributable to gains from dispositions of USRPIs held by us directly or through pass-through subsidiaries, or USRPI capital gains, will be considered effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, without regard to whether the distribution is designated as a capital gain dividend. In addition, we will be required to withhold tax equal to 35% of the amount of capital gain dividends to the extent the dividends constitute USRPI capital gains. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. However, the 35% withholding tax will not apply to any capital gain dividend with respect to any class of our stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the U.S. if the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 5% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such dividend. Instead, any capital gain dividend will be treated as a distribution subject to the rules discussed above under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders—Ordinary Dividends.” Also, the branch profits tax will not apply to such a distribution. A distribution is not a USRPI capital gain if we held the underlying asset solely as a creditor, although the holding of a shared appreciation mortgage loan would not be solely as a creditor. Capital gain dividends received by a non-U.S. stockholder from a REIT that are not USRPI capital gains are generally not subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax, unless either (1) the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain and, in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation, may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such gain after the application of the income tax) or (2) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S. (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain for the year). We do not anticipate that a material portion of our assets will constitute USRPIs.

Dispositions of Our Common Stock

Unless our common stock constitutes a USRPI, a sale of the stock by a non-U.S. stockholder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA. Generally, with respect to any particular stockholder, our common stock will constitute a USRPI only if each of the following three statements is true:

 

  (a) Fifty percent or more of our assets on any of certain testing dates during a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as creditor;

 

  (b) We are not a “domestically-controlled REIT.” A domestically-controlled REIT includes a REIT, less than 50% of value of which is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. persons at all times during a specified testing period. Although we believe that we are a domestically-controlled REIT, because our shares are publicly traded we cannot make any assurance that we will remain a domestically-controlled REIT; and

 

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  (c) Either (i) our common stock is not “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury regulations, on an established securities market; or (ii) our common stock is “regularly traded” on an established securities market and the selling non-U.S. stockholder has actually or constructively held over 5% of our outstanding common stock any time during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or the period such selling non-U.S. stockholder held our common stock.

Specific wash sales rules applicable to sales of stock in a domestically-controlled REIT could result in gain recognition, taxable under FIRPTA, upon the sale of our common stock even if we are a domestically-controlled REIT. These rules would apply if a non-U.S. stockholder (a) disposes of our common stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been taxable to such non-U.S. stockholder as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI, and (b) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, other shares of our common stock during the 61-day period that begins 30 days prior to such ex-dividend date.

If gain on the sale of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. stockholder would be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. stockholder with respect to such gain, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of non-resident alien individuals, and the purchaser of the stock could be required to withhold 10% of the purchase price and remit such amount to the IRS.

Gain from the sale of our common stock that would not otherwise be subject to FIRPTA will nonetheless be taxable in the U.S. to a non-U.S. stockholder in two cases: (a) if the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder, the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. stockholder with respect to such gain, and, in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation, may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such gain after the application of the income tax, or (b) if the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S., the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We report to our U.S. stockholders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year and the amount of any tax withheld. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to dividends paid unless the holder comes within an exempt category and, when required, demonstrates this fact or provides a taxpayer identification number or social security number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. stockholder that does not provide his or her correct taxpayer identification number or social security number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distribution to any U.S. stockholder who fails to certify their non-foreign status.

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. stockholder the amount of dividends paid to such holder and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends, regardless of whether withholding was required. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which the non-U.S. stockholder resides under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty. A non-U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding unless applicable certification requirements are met.

Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our common stock within the U.S. is subject to both backup withholding and information reporting unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalties of perjury that it is a non-U.S. stockholder (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a U.S. person) or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our common stock conducted through certain U.S. related financial intermediaries is subject to information reporting

 

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(but not backup withholding) unless the financial intermediary has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against such holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Foreign Accounts

Federal legislation may impose withholding taxes on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. Under this legislation, the failure to comply with additional certification, information reporting and other specified requirements could result in withholding tax being imposed on payments of dividends and sales proceeds to U.S. stockholders who own shares of our common stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries and certain non-U.S. stockholders. Under Treasury regulations, a 30% withholding tax is imposed on payments made with respect to dividends on, and after December 31, 2016, with respect to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to a foreign financial institution or to a foreign entity other than a financial institution, unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations or (ii) the foreign entity that is not a financial institution either certifies it does not have any substantial United States owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner. If the payee is a foreign financial institution (that is not otherwise exempt), it must either enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain United States persons or United States-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements, or in the case of a foreign financial institution that is resident in a jurisdiction that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement to implement this legislation comply with the revised diligence and reporting obligations of such intergovernmental agreement. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding this legislation.

State, Local and Foreign Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which it or they transact business, own property or reside. The state, local or foreign tax treatment of our company and our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Any foreign taxes incurred by us would not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. Prospective stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application and effect of state, local and foreign income and other tax laws on an investment in our company’s common stock.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form, U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to us and our stockholders may be enacted. Changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations of U.S. federal income tax laws could adversely affect an investment in shares of our common stock.

 

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BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

We may issue the securities offered by means of this prospectus in whole or in part in book-entry form, meaning that beneficial owners of the securities will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the securities, except in the event the book-entry system for the securities is discontinued. If securities are issued in book entry form, they will be evidenced by one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the securities. The Depository Trust Company is expected to serve as depositary. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual securities represented thereby, a global security may not be transferred, except as a whole, by the depositary for the global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by the depositary or any nominee of such depositary to a successor depositary or a nominee of such successor. Global securities may be issued in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to a class or series of securities that differ from the terms described here will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we anticipate that the following provisions will apply to depositary arrangements.

Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary for the global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual securities represented by such global security to the accounts of persons that have accounts with such depositary, who are called “participants.” Such accounts shall be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to the securities or by us if the securities are offered and sold directly by us. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to the depositary’s participants or persons that may hold interests through such participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by the applicable depositary or its nominee (with respect to beneficial interests of participants) and records of the participants (with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants). The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interest in a global security.

So long as the depositary for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, such depositary or nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by such global security for all purposes under the applicable instrument defining the rights of a holder of the securities. Except as provided below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual securities of the class or series represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of any such securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable instrument defining the rights of the holders of the securities.

Payments of amounts payable with respect to individual securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security representing such securities. None of us, our officers and board members or any trustee, paying agent or security registrar for an individual series of securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such securities or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for a series of securities offered by means of this prospectus or its nominee, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest, dividend or other amount in respect of a permanent global security representing any of such securities, will immediately credit its participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of such global

 

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security for such securities as shown on the records of such depositary or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Such payments will be the responsibility of such participants.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Clifford Chance US LLP will pass upon the validity of the shares of the securities we are offering under this prospectus and certain U.S. federal income tax matters. If the validity of any securities is also passed upon by counsel for the underwriters of an offering of those securities, that counsel will be named in the prospectus supplement relating to that offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements, and the related financial statement schedule, incorporated in this prospectus by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule have been incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any reports, statements or other information we file at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room. Our SEC filings are also available to the public from commercial document retrieval services and at the website maintained by the SEC, containing reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, at www.sec.gov.

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act covering securities that may be offered under this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference herein is deemed to be part of this prospectus, except for any information superseded by information in this prospectus. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents set forth below that we have previously filed with the SEC. These documents contain important information about us, our business and our finances.

 

Document

  

Period

Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-34452)

   Year ended December 31, 2014

Document

  

Period

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-34452)

   Quarter ended March 31, 2015

Document

  

Filed

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-34452)

   January 5, 2015

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-34452)

   January 13, 2015

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-34452)

   January 30, 2015

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-34452)

   March 10, 2015

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-34452)

   May 1, 2015

 

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Document

  

Filed

Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (only with respect to information contained in such Definitive Proxy Statement that is incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014) (File No. 001-34452)

   March 19, 2015

Document

  

Filed

Description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-34452)

   September 10, 2009

Description of our Series A Preferred Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-34452)

   July 30, 2012

All documents that we file (but not those that we furnish) pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus, and any previously filed documents. In addition, all documents that we file (but not those that we furnish) pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of any of the securities covered under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any previously filed documents.

If you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to us at 9 West 57th Street, 43rd Floor, New York, New York 10019, Attention: Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc., Investor Relations, or contact our offices at (212) 515-3200. The documents may also be accessed on our website at www.apolloreit.com. The information on our website does not form a part of and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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LOGO

$100,000,000

4.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2022

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Morgan Stanley

BofA Merrill Lynch

Citigroup

J.P. Morgan

Deutsche Bank Securities

JMP Securities

Keefe, Bruyette & Woods

A Stifel Company

 

 

November 6, 2017